Redshift Reassessed via Functional Equations

Based upon the invariance of red shift over the emitted frequencies of a stellar source, a functional equation is derived whose only non-trivial solution is an exponential function.  This methodology is applied to recessional redshift, for both relativistic and...

Nature of the Non-Expanding Universe (2009)

In a universe expanding as per the Big Bang or Steady State theory the cosmic redshifts should increase exponentially with time, which is not actually observed. So the universe is NOT expanding. In the non-expanding universe the total energy-mass content is eternally...