Redshift Reassessed via Functional Equations

Based upon the invariance of red shift over the emitted frequencies of a stellar source, a functional equation is derived whose only non-trivial solution is an exponential function.  This methodology is applied to recessional redshift, for both relativistic and...

A Survey of Anomalous Redshifts (2008)

One of the greatest challenges facing astrophysics is derivation of remoteness in cosmological objects. At large scales, it is almost entirely dependent upon the well-established Hubble relationship in spectral redshift. The comparison of galactic redshifts with...

Zero Point Energy and the Redshift (2010)

The first section of this paper introduces the concept of the vacuum Zero Point Energy (ZPE) in terms of stochastic electro-dynamics, or SED physics. The effects of the ZPE on atoms and atomic processes according to SED concepts are then summarized. This includes the...

The Redshift and the Zero Point Energy (2003)

The history of the redshift is traced and a variety of problems listed in addition to two major anomalies. One of these anomalies is the quantized redshift, which was first noted by Tifft in 1976 and has been confirmed a number of times, most recently by Bell in 2003....