**The 18th Annual Conference of the NPA, July 6-9, 2011, at College Park, MD**

This meeting was one of our annual gatherings that took place at the campus of the University of Maryland at College Park. We want to thank Cynthia Whitney for her many years ofdedication as editor of these proceedings, and DonBriddell, Greg Volk and David de Hilster for putting on the conference and creating the 2011 Proceedings.

**Proceedings of the NPA, Volume 8**

**Table of Contents**

Velimir Abramovic, ‘Mathematical Methods to Refute Einstein’s Electrodynamics‘ | 1 |

Neal Adams, ‘Subduction: The Extent & Duration‘ | 4 |

Dennis P. Allen, ‘Neo-Newtonian Theory‘ | 7 |

Roger J. Anderton, ‘Einstein’s Theory Revised by Person(s) Unknown‘ | 17 |

Lyndon E. Ashmore, ‘Intrinsic Plasma Redshifts Now Reproduced in the Laboratory‘ : ‘A Discussion in Terms of New Tired Light‘ |
18 |

‘Gamma-Ray Lines of the X-Class Solar Flare of July 23rd, 2002 Provide Direct Evidence of New Tired Light‘ | 22 |

Pal Asija, ‘A Systems View of the Universe as ONE Reality‘ | 28 |

Andre K. T. Assis, ‘Consequences of Relational Time‘ | 36 |

Robert F. Beck, ‘Verifying Evidence for the Predictions of The Special Theory of Reality‘ | 39 |

Robert J. Bennett, ‘The ALFA Model: Absolute Lab Frame and Flexible Aether‘ | 44 |

Bernard R. Bligh, ‘Has Cosmology taken a Wrong Turn in its Historical Development?‘ | 54 |

T. B. Bon, ‘The Theory of Field Interaction: An Introduction‘ | 56 |

Glenn Borchardt, ‘Einstein’s Most Important Philosophical Error‘ | 64 |

Dan Brasoveanu, ‘The Meaning of EPR Paradox and Bell’s Theorem‘ | 69 |

Don Briddell, ‘The Neutron: Modeled as a Fieldstructure‘ | 75 |

Michael H. Brill, ‘Infinite-Rydberg Limit of the Hydrogen Atom: The Lowest-Energy Unbound States‘ | 84 |

Henrik Vilhelm Broberg, ‘Gravitation, Mass, Expanding Universe‘ | 86 |

Steven Bryant, ‘The Twin Paradox: Why it is Required by Relativity‘ | 96 |

Steven Bryant, Glenn Borchardt, ‘Failure of the Relativistic Hypercone‘ | 99 |

Dwardu Cardona, ‘Earth’s Primeval Polar Heat‘ | 102 |

James Carter, ‘The True Direction of Gravitational Force‘ | 107 |

Ivor Catt, ‘Does Faraday Allow Superposition?’ | 111 |

Yi-Fang Chang, ‘“Negative Temperature”, a Necessaryand Sufficient Condition for Entropy Decrease in an Isolated System‘ | 116 |

Ev Cochrane, ‘Ancient Testimony for a Comet-like Venus‘ | 121 |

David V. Connell, ‘New Gravity, Happily Divorced From Relativity‘ | 126 |

‘A Relativity Theorem, with Huge Consequences’ | 129 |

Jeffrey N. Cook, ‘Experiment of the Biefield-Brown Effect using Symmetric Plate Capacitors Charged below 35kV’ | 132 |

William Day, ‘The Orbital Systems of Matter and ItsOrigin‘ | 139 |

‘Why Hawking and Mlodinow Think the Universe is a Rare Coincidence‘ | 146 |

David de Hilster, ‘The Neutrino: Doomed from Inception‘ | 148 |

Robert de Hilster, Bob, ‘Fundamentals of Gravity‘ | 151 |

Thierry De Mees, ‘The Gravito-Magnetic Inflation ofRotating Bodies‘ | 154 |

‘Is the Differential Rotation of the Sun Caused by a Coriolis Graviton Engine?‘ | 158 |

Glen W. Deen, ‘Problems with Flowing Space Gravity Theory‘ | 160 |

Robert L. DeMelo, ‘Science 2.0 Schema‘ | 170 |

Edward Henry Dowdye, ‘Gravitational Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space Does NOT Take Place‘ | 176 |

‘The Shapiro Delay: A Frequency Dependent Transit-Time Effect‘ | 182 |

Peter F. Erickson, ‘Division in the Veritable Number System‘ | 187 |

Timothy Ray Erney, ‘The Drift-Alfvén Model for a Magnetized Plasma Applied to Saturn’s Polar Vortices‘ | 190 |

Viraj Fernando, ‘Leibniz’ Internal Principle as theLink between the Abstract Idea and Empirical Thingin Physics‘ | 192 |

Thomas Findlay, ‘Introductory Guide to the ElectricUniverse‘ | 202 |

Vladimir B. Ginzburg, ‘Basic Concept of 3-Dimensional Spiral String Theory (3D-SST)‘ | 209 |

Michael E. Gmirkin, ‘The Sun-Earth Connection (and Other Considerations)‘ | 221 |

Richard W. Guy, ‘Expanding Earth and Receding Seas‘ | 229 |

Sankar Hajra, ‘The Cross Radial Force‘ | 235 |

Helmut Hansen, ‘The Hidden Face of c, or The True Meaning of the Kennedy-Thorndike Experiment‘ | 240 |

Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Omiros Ragos, Michael Harney, ‘Eccentricity Functions in the Higher Degree & Order Sectorial Gravitational Harmonic Coefficients‘ |
245 |

Daniel L. Haulman, ‘Relative Light Speed‘ | 249 |

Robert L. Henderson, ‘The Rational Definitions of Time, Space, and Force‘ | 251 |

William R. Hohenberger, ‘The First Priniciples of Aether‘ | 258 |

Laurent Hollo, ‘The Organizational Structure of Physics‘ | 269 |

Jaroslav Hynecek, ‘The Fundamental Assumptions of Relativity‘ | 277 |

Lucian M. Ionescu, ‘On Super-symmetry, Anti-Gravityand Free-Energy‘ | 283 |

Jim Johnson, ‘The Essential Guide to the Electric Universe‘ | 288 |

Robert J. Johnson, ‘Evidence for the Anisotropy of the Speed of Light‘ | 293 |

Jan Olof Jonson, ‘The Attractive Force between Two Parallel Currents Explained by Coulomb’s Law‘ | 299 |

‘Coulomb’s Law is the Basis for Radiation Energy‘ | 303 |

Philipp M. Kanarev, ‘The Motor-Generator‘ | 305 |

Sanjit Karmakar, ‘Ghost Imaging Technology in Sensing Applications‘ | 310 |

Yuri N. Keilman, ‘The Major Player in Special Relativity is the Metric Tensor‘ | 312 |

Jaroslav G. Klyushin, ‘The Field Approach to Thermodynamics‘ | 313 |

Leslee A. Kulba, ‘Keeping One’s Eye on the Ball‘ | 323 |

Robert M. and Lou Ellen LaFollette, ‘A Proposed Unified Theory of Human Nature, based on Thermodynamics, Electrodynamics and Emergence’ |
327 |

Janusz D. Laski, ‘Velocities in Special Relativity are not Vectors‘ | 339 |

Frédéric Lassiaille, ‘Gravitational Model of the Three Elements Theory‘ | 341 |

Zifeng Li, ‘The Law of Universal Attraction with Momentum Exchange between Objects and Microparticles‘ | 345 |

‘The Nature and Principle of Charge Interaction and Coulomb’s Law‘ | 348 |

Carl R. Littmann, ‘Sphere Volume Ratios in Tetrahedral and Triangular Patterns, and Some Implications‘ | 351 |

Chung Y. Lo, ‘Linearization of the Einstein Equation, and The 1993 Press Release of the Nobel Prize in Physics‘ | 354 |

Lockyer, Thomas N., ‘The Mass Defect Nature of Gravity‘ | 363 |

Manhin Look-Yat, Helen L. Look-Yat Taylor, ‘True Planetary Motions and Rhythmic Climatic Changes‘ | 367 |

Jocelyne Lopez, ‘The G.O.Mueller Research Project: GOM Project on Relativity. ‘ | 373 |

Charles William Lucas, ‘Electrodynamic Origin of Gravitational Forces‘ | 375 |

‘The Universal Electrodynamic Force‘ | 387 |

Doug Marett, ‘On the Continuing Relevance of LorentzEther Theory in the Age of Relativity‘ | 397 |

Harry H. Mark, ‘Speed of Light in Historical Perspective‘ | 401 |

Peter Marquardt, ‘A Distant View of Physics‘ | 405 |

Richard Moody Jr., ‘Communal Blind Spots/Intuitive Iteration‘ | 409 |

Kenneth L. Moore, ‘The Best Stellar Aberration Model‘ | 411 |

Viktor N. Moroz, ‘The Vicious Circle: Mathematics -Physics‘ | 415 |

Neil E. Munch, ‘Value of Assumption Controls in Advanced Physics‘ | 419 |

Athanassios A. Nassikas, ‘A Proposed Experiment to Verify Gravitational Electromagnetic Interaction‘ | 421 |

Richard Oldani, ‘Exercises in Natural Philosophy: The Physical Origin of Consciousness‘ | 424 |

Ronald D. Pearson, ‘Dark Energy Mystery Solved by Big Breed Theory!’ | 437 |

John-Erik Persson, ‘The Fatal Mistakes‘ | 444 |

‘Illusions and Reality in Relativity‘ | 445 |

Thomas E. Phipps Jr., ‘When and Where is a Current Electrically Neutral?‘ | 449 |

Vivian Pope, ‘Extraordinary Physics, or Is Modern Theoretical Physics Just a Teetering ‘House of Cards’?‘ | 451 |

Evert Jan Post, ‘Recasting Copenhagen Doctrine in a Classical Vein‘ | 460 |

Don Reed, ‘Camouflaged Contextual Posturing in the Laws of Nature: Hidden Riches for Novel Forms of Technology and Energy Generation‘ |
464 |

Harry H. Ricker III, ‘Empirical Verification of Time Dilation in Special Relativity‘ | 473 |

Jan Peter Roos, ‘Optimized New Alternative Energy Primer‘ | 478 |

Evgenij Rudikov, Lada Rudikova, ‘Link of Physical Constants with Space Geometry R6(3,3)‘ | 481 |

Jose Ruiz, ‘Converting Aetheric Energy into MagneticEnergy‘ | 486 |

David G. Russell, ‘Evidence for Large Deviations from Hubble’s Law in Normal Spiral Galaxies‘ | 488 |

Roger A. Rydin, ‘Finding Magic Numbers for Heavy and Super Heavy Elements‘ | 495 |

‘The Theory of Mercury’s Anomalous Precession‘ | 501 |

Ralph Sansbury, ‘Light Speed Measurements from Roemerand Bradley to the GPS System‘ | 507 |

Alexander A. Scarborough, ‘From Void to Energy to Universal Systems in 15 Stages of Beautiful Continuity‘ | 517 |

Paul Schroeder, ‘Get ‘Real’ About Gravity‘ | 521 |

‘Ignoring Newton’s Hints Brought Scientific Chaos‘ | 525 |

Ken H. Seto, ‘Improved Relativity Theory (IRT) and the Doppler Theory of Gravity (DTG)‘ | 529 |

Barry John Setterfield, ‘A Plasma Universe with Changing Zero Point Energy‘ | 535 |

‘Zero Point Energy and Gigantism in Fossils‘ | 545 |

Rati Ram Sharma, ‘Unified Theory and Relativity Imbroglio‘ | 555 |

Duncan W. Shaw, ‘Electricity and Magnetism: A Returnto Aether‘ | 558 |

Wm. Scott Smith, ‘A Large Mechanical Force from theQuantum-Vacuum‘ | 563 |

Joseph J. Smulsky, ‘New Components of the Mercury’sPerihelion Precession‘ | 567 |

Garret Sobczyk, ‘The Geometric Concept of Number’ | 572 |

Sotina, N., Lvov, N, ‘The Ritz Ballistic Theory & Adjusting the Speed of Light to c near the Earth and Other Celestial Bodies‘ | 574 |

Nina B. Sotina, ‘The Schrödinger Equation and Structures in the Physical Vacuum‘ | 579 |

Michael Meade Steinbacher, ‘A New Approach to Mountain Formation‘ | 584 |

Dimiter G. Stoinov, Dilian Stoynov, ‘Resonance Formula of the Hydrogen Spectrum‘ | 591 |

Robert A. Sungenis, ‘Cosmological Evidence Shows Central and Non-Moving Earth‘ | 594 |

Charles Sven, ‘Center of the Universe Located by Triangulation of NASA Data‘ | 604 |

Nicholas J. G. Sykes, ‘The Paradigm of Electric Universe‘ | 605 |

David Talbott, ‘Considering the Electric Sun‘ | 611 |

‘Electric Events on Mars‘ | 621 |

Hartwig W. Thim, ‘Three Major Inconsistencies of the LorentzTransformations‘ | 629 |

Wallace W. Thornhill, ‘Stars in an Electric Universe (2011 John Chappell Memorial Paper)‘ | 630 |

Bobby D. Ticer, ‘The Recycling Universe‘ | 638 |

Frederick David Tombe, ‘Physical Lines of Force inthe Aether‘ | 641 |

Michael R Treat, David Rosignoli, ‘Experimental Results in Measuring Atmospheric Electricity’ | 643 |

Aleksandr M. Tsybin, ‘Space vs. Vacuum: Facts Show That Space isn’t Vacuum‘ | 646 |

Thomas F. Valone, ‘Quantum Vacuum Zero Point and Negative Energy: Theory and Applications‘ | 650 |

Lee Field Valstad, ‘Delinquence’ | 658 |

‘The Unified Field’ | 660 |

Marinus Anthony van der Sluijs, ‘Towards a History of Plasma-Universe Theory‘ | 662 |

Greg Volk, ‘The Convergence of New Physics Paradigms: Unity in Diversity‘ | 668 |

‘Toroids, Vortices, Knots, Topology and Quanta: Part 1‘ | 675 |

Dan Wagner, ‘New Direct Test Proposed for Einstein’s Velocity Addition Formula‘ | 681 |

Charles E. Weber, ‘Lava Flows from Disruption of Crust at the Antipode of Large Meteorite Impacts‘ | 685 |

Stewart I. Wells, ‘Gyroscopic Paradox of Motion: Validation of Mach’s Principle? – Part 1‘ | 687 |

Billie Westergard, ‘Degenerate Angular Momentum in the Hotson-Westergard Universe Model‘ | 691 |

Cynthia Kolb Whitney, ‘A New Theory for Important New Technologies‘ | 700 |

Pharis E. Williams, ‘Absolutes and Confusion or Absolute Confusion‘ | 709 |

Yongfeng Yang, ‘Motions of Observable Structures Ruled by Hierarchical Two-body Gravitation in the Universe‘ | 712 |

David G. Yurth, ‘Y-Bias and Angularity: The Dynamics of Self-Organizing Criticality‘ | 722 |