One of the major unsolved problems in physics today concerns the origin of particle rest mass. Einstein attempted to explain the rest masses of elementary particles as singularities in space-time. Present efforts aimed at unifying the forces in the Universe are intimately related to this idea, and the approach taken by the majority of researchers is to invoke rescaling during the expansion of the Universe since the Big Bang.

Keywords: Cosmology, Mass, Red shift, Hubble, Quantum, Black hole

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