Conclusions

We have developed herein a theory of physical matter possessing and using finite information content, with only the nominal assumptions with regards to Relativity. To do so, we have removed any dependency on external observers in formulating the laws of Nature, and rely solely on the use of information in a small local frame of reference, i.e. nominal relativity. Somewhat surprisingly, effects known as relativistic are found to be in accordance with this assumption, without the postulates and principles of full-blown Relativity, raising the question of whether it is needed at all.

The principal reason for the abandonment of the concept of light-matter medium in the early 1900’s (so called “luminiferous aether”) was its incongruity with the experiments such as the de Sitter and Michelson-Morley, giving rise to the expansion of the concept of Relativity. We have shown these experiments to be easily predicted via premise of information content of physical matter and the reasonable assumptions of its use. Because those premises neither require nor deny the presence of any kind of medium with the help of which both light and matter waves propagate, either as a propagation or as a guiding-pilot medium, we can now consider the possibility that the waves of Quantum physics are real, and not waves of probability. Such a medium would be made of physical matter, which is subject to the same laws we heretofore derived, the prominent one being that the maximum speed of its motion depends on the location, and near a large information source like Earth, it is always c relative to it.

In addition to allowing quantum waves to be real, the very premise of the finite and discrete nature of information yields some of the quantification as it is postulated in Quantum physics. The use of spatial information is shown to be probabilistic in its nature, due to limited information resources of physical matter, giving way to its indeterministic stature. What is important from the core perspective of a theory is that the phenomena we know as “quantum” and “relativistic” are both shown to be singularly informational, without any separation of principles between the quantum and relativistic.

In the course of developing the theory, we have introduced the notion of information speed, which does not depend on any relative speeds, or any choice of frames of reference. It signifies the throughput of information in physical matter. We have also introduced the concept of a constraint group, which is the set of objects that influence any given matter the most. It is the constraint group that determines the maximum local speed of any given matter, relative to any other object.

We have deduced that the information speed has a maximum value which we found equal to c. The actual maximum speed varies with location and differs relative to the mass that influences the object in motion the most, i.e. varies with the current constraint group. Such maximum speed can exceed c or be lower than c relative to various observers, and such speed limit is different from the speed of light in general. Speed of light is simply the maximum speed of a very small particle nearby a very large isolated mass.

In other words, all objects moving with maximum speed in any given location have the same information speed c, but their actual speed relative to other object varies. Somewhat unfortunately, the two speeds, information and spatial, are practically one and the same near a large isolated mass like Earth, and the difference is not apparent in many other cases. Information speed involves not just the two objects moving relative to one another, but rather it may involve all objects in existence, and it only reduces to relative speed in the aforementioned corner cases. By accounting properly for the difference between information and spatial relative speed, we have seen that de Sitter effect and Michelson-Morley experiment are easily explained without Relativity.

Recent observations of the lack of time dilation in quasars[1] are in agreement with the results obtained here. Time dilation depends on the constraint group of a given mass, making it non-trivial to express the exact rate of physical time in all but the simplest cases, such as those found near massive isolated objects like Earth. Very large masses are more likely to experience negligent time dilation and to be free to move with speeds that exceed c relative to us, as it has been observed in “superluminal motion of galaxies”[2], while at the same time, their light can still reach us. This is because the speed of a photon changes the way its constraint group changes, i.e. the way its disposition to other masses changes, and relative to us on Earth, can be higher or lower than c.

A preponderant body of experimental results, from over a hundred years past, including known relativistic experiments, is apparently in accordance with our results, because our results reduce to that of Relativity. We have focused on a different initial approach to the theory itself, which in certain corner cases, having never been a subject of direct observation, diverge from known theories, thus providing good basis for new experiments.  Conceptually, the approach taken here is before the first principles, and relies only on the premise of usage of information content by physical matter and the postulates that are thought valid on their face, i.e. axiomatic, and not on the experimental facts taken as laws of Nature. The reasoning process we employ could be said to objectify the topic of time dilation and associated phenomena, as we arrive to it by providing the internal view of time dilation as well as the underlying structure, and not as it is by definition in Relativity, by the invocation of the equality of points of view of external observers.

We have shown that the infinitesimally small time dt in physical equations cannot be infinitesimal, but rather is a minimum finite period of time in which a physical particle does not change its state of motion. In the context of time dilation, we find that kinematic time dilation depends on the mass of the many relevant objects, and their distances, and not just the relative speed of the two frames of reference, and with such effect being in addition to gravitational time dilation. Time dilation effect in general is relative to a flow of time of a smallest possible isolated mass infinitely far away, as a baseline. Simple symmetrical relations that exist in Relativity between observers no longer apply, even if the framework from which such symmetrical equations arise could be compared directly with our approach of nominal relativity, which it cannot. For example, when a high-speed object approaches Earth, the clock onboard this object would slow down, while the clock on Earth would slow down negligibly. Such a statement is presented with the aforementioned baseline for measuring changes in the ticking of clocks, and not in the context of Relativity, as we cannot directly “crossover” most statements this way between the two theories, due to a fundamental difference in the initial approach. Aside from the notion of nominal relativity holding a faint resemblance to the principles of Relativity, there is virtually nothing to directly connect the two, save for predicting the same experimental results. Finally, we conclude that the equations of Relativity hold fully true only in the case of an isolated large mass. In other words, the equations such as for time dilation and mass increase, are reduced to the ones of Relativity only in cases of such astronomical isolation, while in general, those equations are different.

On the note of difference, it is important to state that there is no need to empower external observers with the effective arbitration of natural laws, as they are in Relativity. They certainly can examine such laws, but because such requirement is patently absent in our theory, the issue of simultaneity now has no point.

In Relativity, deductions follow from the premise that certain phenomena deemed fundamental, appear the same way to all frames of reference, i.e. to both local and external frames with respect to such phenomena, and from such a premise we get kinematic and gravitational time dilation. For us, both the premises and the deductions of Relativity are the consequences of the limited information resources of physical matter, and in the case of the speed of light, the aforementioned constancy does not always hold either. Factors v2/c2 and 2GM/Rc2 are generalized with the factor Δi2/i2, which has a singular physical interpretation as the loss of spatial information a particle uses, due to its finite resources. We find that the “seat” of relativistic effects doesn’t have to be Relativity, i.e. it need not be about expecting physical phenomena to comply with the observer’s view from the outside therein. We find that the “seat” of such effects is in the internal workings of matter, and moreover, workings that are independent on any particular physical model and independent on any external frame of reference. Rather, the inner workings we speak of, represent the universal tenet of logic that any physical action must come from applied information content, in whatever shape or form.

Gravity is shown to be a consequence of a permanent gradient of the spatial information throughput in a direction in space. We also showed that relative motion creates a change in the spatial information throughput of physical matter as well, and as such, it can influence the gradient arising naturally from the presence of mass.

Overall, even with the predictions provided by the theory, perhaps the most curious and interesting aspect is formulating the precise results of Relativity, both Special and General, as corner cases, without using any of its postulates or the first principles of physics, and as such, without knowing that light, mass and gravity exist a priori, all the while allowing for quantum effects within the very same framework.

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