The current concept of the nuclei of isotopes is that they all have the same number of protons and only differ by the number of included neutrons. This paper proposes an alternate model for the nucleus: the nucleotope. This model of nuclei has the number of protons and neutrons not differing from one another by more than a single unit; thus the up and down quarks do not differ by more than a singles unit either! The outward nuclear charge is determined by the number of included β- particles. The model is applied to the elements of the periodic table, particularly addressing tritium and why elements above lead are unstable α-particle emitters.
The paper is currently posted at: