Distinct electric and magnetic substances exist in nature. A drifting atom or photon produces electricity and 186-ether drift produces magnetism. Drift velocity v is calculated by Maxwell’s drift velocity equation. However drift velocity v cannot be restricted to the rare instance of motion or passage of electrons. Drift is herein defined as velocity squared. For matter such as atomic mass or photon mass drift is light speed c times drift velocity v. For 186-ether the drift is v # times drift velocity v. Atomic mass is a frequency measure of one invariant oscillator that moves at the speed of light squared. Change in frequency of this invariant 737-mass yield the atomic masses of the periodic table. 186-ether torus mass is also invariant. The electric atom rolls in the moving magnetic 186-ether torus. This is electromagnetism. The locomotion of the toroid consisting of atom-ether tori is EM-drift.

Keywords: Electricity, Magnetism, Field, Flux, Mass, Ether

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