On February 11, 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration published a paper about the detection of gravitational waves from two mass black holes merging about 1.3 billion light-years away from Earth (http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/02/gravitational-waves-einstein-s-ripples-spacetime-spotted-first-time).  Let us analyze this information in detail.

What was observed?

In the morning of September 14th 2015 the change in an interference patter were detected by two Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatories (LIGO) located in Louisiana and Washington. The laser interferometer that was used to measure the gravitational-waves consisted of two arms (vacuum tubes) which were 2.5 miles in length. These were at 90 degree angle to each other (in a shape of L) with mirrors suspended at the ends of each arm (see figure below). Coherent light split into two beams which then reflected off the mirrors. The reflected beams recombined and the change in an interference patter was detected.

gravitationalwaves1

What does the official science claim?

About 1.3 billion years ago, deep in space, two massive black holes whirled about each other at half the speed of light and finally merged. The collision sent a shudder through the universe: ripples in the fabric of space and time called gravitational waves. Since gravitational waves were expected to travel at the speed of light, the delay between the signals detected in Louisiana and in Washington (7 milliseconds) helped to determine the location of the source of the wave.

When a gravitational wave passes through an interferometer, the space-time in the local area is altered. Depending on the source of the wave and its polarization, this results in an effective change in length of one or both of the interferometer’s arms. The light, therefore, periodically gets out of coherence and produces the change in the interference pattern at the detector.

Were there any earlier observations of the gravitational field fluctuations?

а) Anomalous precession of a pendulum during a solar eclipse (know as Allais effect).

The Allais effect refers to an anomalous behavior of a pendulum or a gravimeter, which is sometimes observed during a solar eclipse. The effect was first reported as an anomalous precessions of the plane of oscillation of a pendulum during the solar eclipse of June 30m 1954 by Maurice Allais (who later won the Nobel Prize in Economics).

In his experiment Maurice Allais released a Foucault pendulum. He recorded the direction of rotation of the plane of oscillation (in degrees) for a few days at his Paris laboratory. By coincidence, one of the days appeared to be the day of the 1954 solar eclipse. Right after the solar eclipse started the plane of the pendulum oscillations suddenly began to rotate in opposite direction. The deviation reached maximum 20 minutes before of the “peak” of the solar eclipse, when the Moon covers the significant part of the solar surface. The rotation of the plane of oscillations got back to normal after the end of the eclipse. Allais got similar results when he later repeated the experiment during a solar eclipse in 1959.

Since that first observation, the “Allais effect”, has confounded physicists. If the effect is real, it could indicate a hitherto unperceived flaw in General Relativity – which provides the current explanation of how gravity works.

Various experiments have been performed in order to detect anomalous behavior of a gravimeter during solar eclipses. Some observations gave positive results and some failed to detect any noticeable effect. Thus, in 1995 Indian scientists D.C. Mishra, M.B.S. Rao, from the Geophysical Research Institute, observed slight changes of the force of gravity during a solar eclipse.  However, in July 1990 when there was a total solar eclipse in Helsinki, Finland, no effects were observed.

The figure below shows the data collected during a partial solar eclipse on January 4th 2011. The measurements were made using a simple pendulum gravimeter. The gravimeter has detected a peak rising of gravity, equal to 16 millionths of g. The details of the experiment can be found in a work of Valentino Straser, “Proceedings of Natural Philosophy Alliance”, Vol.11, December 2015, page 132.

Eclipse of the Sun on January 4, 2011.

Eclipse of the Sun on January 4, 2011.

 

b) Anomalous trend of gravity observed during earthquakes.

In the Valentino Straser’s work mentioned above there is a graph (below) that show the fluctuations of gravity during the earthquake in Japan on March 11, 2011.

Trend of gravity during the earthquake in Japan on March 11, 2011

Trend of gravity during the earthquake in Japan on March 11, 2011

 

The nature of the gravitational anomalies during earthquakes and during solar eclipses is not clear. 

Critical remarks on the official explanation of the signals obtained by LIGO.

а) The observations made on September 14th by LIGO must not be considered a confirmation of the General theory of relativity, because the parameters of the black holes and their locations were not known from the independent sources prior to measurements. On the contrary the black holes’ parameters were selected such that the effect from their collision would coincide with the observed effect that is from the solution of the inverse problem.

б) The speed of the gravitational waves in all calculations was assumed to be equal c. This fact was not confirmed experimentally, it follows theoretically from theory of relativity. There are experiments, however, which refute this statement. For example, Tom Van Flandern in his work “The Speed of Gravity What the Experiments Say” proves that the low boundary for the speed of the gravitational field fluctuations exceeds the c by 20 billion times. (http://www.metaresearch.org/cosmology/speed_of_gravity.asp).

с) The existence of the black holes was predicted by Einstein’s theory of General relativity. However, Stephen William Hawking predicted theoretically from quantum mechanics that black holes emit radiation which may continue until they exhaust their energy. He wrote that “the absence of event horizons means that there are no black holes — in the sense of regimes from which light can’t escape to infinity.”