by Tuomo Suntola | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

It is natural to think of space as finite but without edges. The simplest geometry that eliminates the edges of a structure is a sphere, and to close a three-dimensional space we need a 4-sphere, the surface of a four-dimensional ball. Describing space as the surface...
by Tuomo Suntola | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

Newtonian physics is local by its nature. No local frame is in a special position in space. There are no overall limits to space or to physical quantities. Newtonian space is Euclidean until infinity, and velocities in space grow linearly as long as there is constant...
by Tuomo Suntola | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

A detailed analysis of a dynamic solution of the zero-energy condition of gravitation and motion in Einstein’s original proposal of spherically closed space shows a precise match to the luminosity?redshift relation of Ia supernovae without dark energy,...
by Tuomo Suntola | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

The Dynamic Universe model introduced in previous PIRT conferences is based on a zero energy balance of motion and gravitation in spherically closed space. Such an approach explains the rest energy of matter as the energy of motion mass in space possesses due to the...
by Tuomo Suntola | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

A radio engineer can hardly think about smaller amount of electromagnetic radiation than given by a single oscillation cycle of a unit charge in a dipole. When solved from Maxwell’s equations for a dipole of one wavelength, the energy of the emitted radiation...