by Carl R. Littmann | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

Einstein wisely predicted that when the Sun loses a given mass, m, the sun radiates an amount of energy, mc^2. A purer case occurs when an electron and a positron mass interact and annihilate, and energy radiation occurs. But it is wrong and inconsistent to assume...
by Carl R. Littmann | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

In previous papers, we addressed the proton and less massive major particles by correlating their mass ratios with volume ratios in simplest sphere patterns. Now we include particles of greater mass than the proton, the Hyperons, and compare those mass ratios to...
by Carl R. Littmann | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

To hopefully add more insight into topics previously addressed by the author and others, he now presents the following: One more way of constructing the ‘pion-to-electron’ mass ratio;Lord Kelvin’s old ether density estimate and why it is still...
by Carl R. Littmann | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

Although not obvious, there exists a volumetric ratio among big and small spheres in two basic tetrahedrally arrayed patterns that equals a basic spheres ratio in a somewhat similar triangular pattern. We display the cases. We show how the average of two volumetric...
by Carl R. Littmann | Apr 15, 2014 | Paper

This article discusses the muon to proton mass ratio and nearly equal volumetric ratios in simple patterns. Those volumetric ratios arise when equal small spheres are closely packed inside larger spheres. We compare that to other particle mass ratios and corresponding...