One of the greatest challenges facing astrophysics is derivation of remoteness in cosmological objects. At large scales, it is almost entirely dependent upon the well-established Hubble relationship in spectral redshift. The comparison of galactic redshifts with distances arrived at by other means has yielded a useable curve to an acceptable confidence level, and the assumption of scale invariance allows the adoption of redshift as a standard calibration of cosmological distance. However, there have been several fields of study in observational astronomy that consistently give apparently anomalous results from ever-larger statistical samples, and would thus seem to require further careful investigation. This paper presents a review summary of recent independent work, primarily (for galaxies and proto-galaxies) by teams led by, respectively, D. G. Russell, M. Lopez-Corredoira, and H. C. Arp, and for galaxy clusters and large-scale structures, those of N. A. Bahcall5, J.C. Jackson, and N. Kaiser. Included also are several other important contributions that will be fully cited in the text. The observational evidence is presented here per se without attempting theoretical conclusions or extrapolating the data to cosmology.
Keywords: redshift, quasars, galaxies, expansion, cosmology, anomalous, peculiar.