**Dates**: 2014-11-19 – 2014-11-21

**Where**: Baltimore, MD

**Venue**: Radisson Cross-Keys Hotel, Baltimore, MD

**Description**

The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) is devoted mainly to broad-ranging, fully open-minded criticism, at the most fundamental levels , of the often irrational and unrealistic doctrines of modern physics and cosmology; and to the ultimate replacement of these doctrines by much sounder ideas developed with full respect for evidence, logic, and objectivity. Such reforms have long been urgently needed; and yet there is no area of scholarship more stubbornly censorial, and more reluctant to reform itself.

Conference Authors and Papers |

Application of SRT to Calculating Mercury’s Perihelion Advance |

James Keele |

This article shows how SRT as applied to charged particles may be applied in an analogous manner to gravitational bodies. With such application and the creation of a computer program, the perihelion advance of Mercury is calculated. The results are compared with results from calculations based on General Relativity Theory. Important characteristics of gravity are illuminated, including gravity laws. |

On Five Independent Phenomena Sharing a Common Cause |

Roger Ellman |

Over the past century a succession of five different independent astronomical phenomena have been discovered, each appearing to be the result of a common underlying cause that also produces an unaccounted-for acceleration that is: quite small, centrally directed in the system exhibiting each phenomenon, non-gravitational, distance independent, and apparently of a common magnitude. The present paper analyzes the phenomena and proposes the underlying common cause, a common solution to the problem that they present. |

Four of the phenomena, in the order of their discovery are: |

1 – In 1933, the indication by galactic rotation curves that there is such an acceleration present and acting in galaxies but with no observable cause [hence the postulating of “Dark Matter”]. Here the acceleration is directed toward the galactic center, the dominant factor in the mechanics of galaxy rotation. |

2 – In 1998, the Pioneer Anomaly in which the acceleration is directed toward the Sun, the dominant factor in the mechanics of the Pioneer spacecrafts’ motion. |

3 – In 2008, the Flybys Anomaly for which the acceleration is directed toward the center of the Earth, the dominant factor in the mechanics of the flyby motion [as presented in the paper following]. |

4 – Also in 2008, confirmed in 2010, the Dark Flow anomaly for which the acceleration is directed toward the central origin of the overall universe, the dominant factor in the mechanics of the overall universe, where the Big Bang and expansion began [as presented in the paper following]. |

The earliest of all is |

5 – Hubble’s discovery of Redshifts of the light from various distant astral bodies. |

Climate anomalies, their drivers and tectonic connections |

Giovanni P. Gregori –IDASC (CNR) giovanni.gregori@idasc.cnr.it |

Bruce Leybourne – geostreams@climatestat.com |

Climate-Stat Inc., 12361 East Cornell Ave., Aurora, CO, USA |

Solar influence on climate occurs (by high-frequency modulation) through the “external-way” (Sun → magnetosphere → troposphere) and (by low-frequency) through the “internal-way” (Sun → Earth’s endogenous energy → energy exhalation). The percent role of either “way” depends on the spectrum of the solar change. The “external-way” modulation displays substantial uniformity, the “internal-way” largely variable spacetime anisotropy. A higher percent of “internal” driver implies greater vorticity in fluid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere (present Sun is very anomalous). |

Fluid dynamics of an ionized medium is an effective ubiquitous dynamo (according to Cowling’s generalized theorem), from micro-through macro-scale. Vorticity supplies increased atmospheric electricity, water condensation and precipitation, larger cloud cover, larger albedo, smaller capture of solar radiation, colder and variable climate. |

(1) Localized thermal expansion of lithosphere and crust, (2) changes of subsoil electrical conductivity, and (3) gas exhalation, altogether change the electromagnetic (e.m.) coupling between subsoil and atmosphere, justifying anomalous otherwise unexplained events (wildfires), and eventually also energy-threshold phenomena (volcanic paroxysm, earthquakes, hurricanes), and seismic/atmospheric (meteorological and/or ionospheric) correlation. |

Modern high frequency climate is modulated by solar system orbital physics variation in electro-magnetic/gravitational coupling between the Earth and other astrophysical bodies. Solar rotation and orbital influences of the Moon, Jupiter and Saturn have dominant roles in modern climate high frequency modulation. While Earth’s longer orbital cycles, such as eccentricity (~100ky), obliquity (~36ky), and precession (~26ky) modulate ice ages 100,000 year cycles and various other climate proxies and are known as Milankovitch cycles. |

Ancient paleo-climate is controlled by (1) Earth e.m. resonance (410,000 years; i.e. eccentricity modulation), (2) Solar System crossing of galactic equatorial plane (~14 Ma), and (3) timing of endogenous energy release (27.4 Ma, Earth’s “electrocardiogram”), with different proxies (hotspot volcanic sequences, spirals, etc.). |

Electro-Magnetic Orbital Modulation of Inter-decadal Climate Oscillations: MJO, ENSO & PDO Considered with Validation of Earth Endogenous Energy Theory |

Bruce Leybourne – geostreams@climatestat.com |

Climate-Stat Inc., 12361 East Cornell Ave., Aurora, CO, USA |

Giovanni P. Gregori – IDASC (CNR) giovanni.gregori@idasc.cnr.it |

Climate oscillations with periods ~20 and ~60-years, appear synchronized to Jupiter (12-years) and Saturn (29-years) orbital periods, while Moon’s orbital cycle appears synchronized to an earthy 9.1-year temperature cycle (Scafetta, 2010). The Earth’s magnetic moment % decay over the past century reflects 30-year weakening-trends and 30-year strengthening-trends of solar magnetic field, exhibiting the same periods (60-years) well correlated to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In addition, magnetic trends exhibit 3 smaller inflection changes during the 30-year trends which appears correlated: (i) with the 9.1-year moon orbital cycle and (ii) with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) patterns overprinted with the 22-year Hale Cycle, more closely associated with a Jupiter affect. Finally the Madden-Julian Oscillation 40-day power-spectrum correlates with the period in which Earth experiences a complete solar rotation and interestingly also a north-south oscillation of earthquakes along the Western Pacific Rim (Krishnamurti, 2009). A review of the literature indicates that El Nino’s have 6-month earthquake precursors (Walker, 1995). In addition the Nation Earthquake information Center database reveals that large 9.0+ earthquakes only occur along the 30-year cooling trend during solar magnetic field strengthening. During this same period Earth also experiences electro-magnetic (e.m.) induction charging, mostly from southern plasma ring-currents coupled to telluric currents in the ridge encircling Antarctica. This transformer effect from the south-pole exerts climate control over the planet via aligned tectonic vortex structures along the Western Pacific Rim, electrically connected to the core. This is consistent with the “Earth Endogenous Energy” theory (Gregori, 2002) (Earth as a rechargeable battery). The driver is modulated by Earth’s e.m. resonance (at ~11/3, ~40-45, and ~410,000-years), while longer periodicities (~14 Ma, and ~27.4±0.05 Ma) are explained by different drivers. Practical energy exploitation may be possible by improved Earth’s monitoring. |

Arp Small Number Hypothesis |

Martin Kokus |

Halton Arp repeatedly found the number 1.23 in mathematical descriptions of the cosmos. In the case of planetary orbits, this number can be derived from Fibonacci and Keplar’s relations. |

General Allais Effect and Seismic Periods |

Martin Kokus |

The principle periods of the General Allais Effect are in phase every 9.5 years. This period along with the sunspot cycle are the principle periods in volcanic and related activity. |

Spherical rotation in a classical eather and the General Allais Effect. |

Martin Kokus |

The eather and spherical rotation are defined along with the Minimum Amplitude Principle. The origins of electrostatic, magnetic and gravitational forces are described. This combination will give rise to a 3 body force which is an oscillating torsion consistent with the General Allais Effect. |

Problems in General Relativity and Errors of Einstein in Relativity |

C. Y. Lo – c_y_lo@yahoo.com |

Applied and Pure Research Institute 15 Walnut Hill Rd., Amherst, NH 03031 |

Violation of the Lorentz invariance shows only that the misinterpretation of Einstein’s equivalence principle is invalid. However, explicit examples show Einstein’s covariance principle is invalid. Einstein’s theory of measurement is invalid and it leads to disagreements with observed light bending. The valid measurement is what Einstein used in calculating the light bending. Thus, using Einstein’s measurement to interpret Hubble’s law as due to the Doppler effect is questionable. For the dynamic case the Einstein equation is invalid since there are no bounded dynamic solutions. Accordingly, the existence of dynamic solutions requires a gravitational energy-stress tensor with the anti-gravity coupling. Thus, Gullstrand is right that Einstein’s calculation on the perihelion of Mercury is invalid. Thus, the 1993 Nobel Prize press release on gravitation is incorrect. Moreover, claims on the existence of bounded dynamic solutions have been found as due to various errors in mathematics. The fact that D. Christodoulou was awarded reflects the blind faith toward Einstein and also his errors. The Einstein equation with an electromagnetic wave as the source has no valid solution unless an additional photonic energy-stress tensor with an anti-gravitational coupling is added to the source. Thus, photonic energy necessarily includes also gravitational energy. Moreover, the existence of the anti-gravity coupling implies that the energy conditions in space-time singularity theorems of Hawking and Penrose cannot be satisfied in physics. Invalid implicit assumption was used by Yau, Schoen, and Witten to prove the positive mass (energy) theorem, considered incorrectly as achievements twice by the Fields Medal. It is concluded that E = mc2 is not valid for the electromagnetic energy alone. The discovery of the charge-mass interaction establishes the need for unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. This unification may explain many puzzles in physics. Also, repulsive gravitation implies that black holes require to be justified anew. |

The Trouble with Modern Physics and the Solution Pointed to by Metatheory |

Charles W. Lucas, Jr. – Ph.D. Theoretical Physics |

Vice President – Natural Philosophy Alliance – www.worldnpa.org Vice President – Common Sense Science – www.commonsensescience.org |

A number of fundamental problems with modern physics are presented which scientists seem unable to overcome. Three key arguments from metatheory (the theory of theories) are presented to show that the current pillars of modern physics, i.e. electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and relativity theory are incomplete and incompatible with one another. These theories were developed under the philosophy of Existentialism which is based upon idealizations instead of reality. This work shows how to perfect the union of the axiomatic and empirical scientific methods in order to derive an improved version of electrodynamics based upon (1) finite-size charged particles with interior structure instead of idealized point particles, (2) conservation of energy with an energy potential instead of an idealized non-physical vector potential from vector calculus, and (3) using a complete set of the independent empirical equations of electrodynamics as axioms instead of a partial set. The derivation of the universal electrodynamic force and its associated field is obtained by properly combining the axiomatic and empirical scientific methods following the rules given in Isaac Newton’s Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. This universal force gives rise to improved versions of the electrodynamic force, the gravitational force, and the inertial force which are supported by significant experimental evidence. |

Finding New Magic Numbers for Light, Heavy and Superheavy Nuclei |

Roger A. Rydin, Emeritus, University of Virginia |

Historically, nuclear modeling came down to two complimentary ideas, the Nuclear Shell Model and the Liquid Drop Model. Certain combinations of neutrons and protons in closed shells led to exceptionally stable isotopes, and these were referred to as the magic numbers: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. There was no apparent pattern to this number sequence, only an experimental observation that there is a discontinuity of about 1 MeV in binding energy as each of these boundaries is crossed, i.e., an extra nucleon is loosely bound. |

A new phenomenological Electro-dynamic Model of the nucleus has been constructed by separately modeling a proton and a neutron using a classical electromagnetic approach first suggested by Arthur Compton. Using these two nucleon representations, different nuclei are arranged by placing neutrons and protons in static geometric positions, where the force balance has minimum energy. These positions have been verified numerically using a variational minimization technique. The intrinsic mass of a nucleon is ~ 99%. Some mass equivalent is stored in EM Fields between nucleons, and some mass equivalent is stored in EM fields inside a nucleon. The masses of all individual isotopes that were calculated are in agreement with the measured values within less than a tenth of a percent, thus mimicking the experimentally measured binding energy per nucleon curve. This suggests that mechanical vibration is a valid physical mechanism for decay and Wave Mechanics is not needed. |

For the first time, the pattern of all the magic number closed nucleon-shells is accurately predicted based on the shell pattern 2, 8, 18, 18, 32 and 50, and many new magic numbers have been found. These magic numbers correspond to stable or long lived isotopes, and to the range of existing isotopes. The new magic number 58 explains the double hump fission product distribution almost exactly. |

The Theory of Mercury’s Anomalous Precession and Correct Orbit Computations |

Roger A. Rydin, Emeritus, University of Virginia |

In 1859, U. J. Le Verrier presented his Theory of the Movement of Mercury, based on analytical hand fitting of planetary orbit measurements taken over a half century. Corrections were made for the influence of several other planets. As observed from Earth, the total of 5600 arc-sec/century was mostly made up by the 5026 arc-sec/century precession of the equinoxes, while 531 arc-sec/century was fit to the other planets, leaving a discrepancy of 43 arc-sec/century that was unaccounted for. Le Verrier obtained a discrepancy of 39 arc-sec/century, and explained it as the influence of an undiscovered planet called Vulcan. |

Although several other evaluations were made up to about 1950, the discrepancy only moved from 39 to 43 arc-sec/century. This was because Einstein, in a 1915 paper, explained the entire difference by introducing a General Relativity (GR) correction to an elliptic orbit. Schwarzschild, in a 1915 letter, warned Einstein that he had made an error in his GR approximation such that the answer would not converge. Schwarzschild’s general GR solution also does not lead to a singularity. Nonetheless, the Einstein GR correction has been accepted as being true, and current computer codes contain a numerical GR correction that cannot be turned off. |

Vancov demonstrated that Einstein only computed the orbit correction term and assumed that the rest of the orbit integral was unchanged, whereas in fact the limits changed and the GR correction canceled out. Vancov subsequently solved Einstein’s corrected orbit equation numerically and has shown that it gives unstable orbits for planets like Mercury. For heavier bodies such as stars, it leads to orbits that become superluminal and do not ever reach the origin. It is thus proven that Einstein’s Mercury correction is completely false, and fails for planets as well as for black holes! |

GRAVITATIONAL ANOMALIES AND THE “ALLAIS EFFECT” FOUND IN ITALY DURING ECLIPES AND STRONG EARTHQUAKES |

Valentino Straser – fifurnio@tiscali.it |

This study presents data and gravitational anomalies measured during eclipses of the Sun and Moon and strong earthquakes. The measurements were made using a simple pendulum gravimeter, created by Dr. Mario Campion, which differs substantially from those normally used: the first type with a constant length spring, the second able to measure absolute gravity by use of a free-fall mechanism, and the third working with a sensitive electromagnetic suspension balance. |

During eclipses of the Sun and Moon, this instrument revealed strong anomalies in the signal that did not appear in the data measured by other gravimeters, but which do agree with the “Allais Effect”. Moreover, the instrument can measure seismic shocks, even at great distances, providing graphs of positive semi waves that indicate variations in gravity at very low frequencies. |

In the partial solar eclipse of 4 January 2011, the gravimeter showed a rising peak in gravity, equal to 16 millionths of g, on the theoretical three star alignment and the passage of the Moon on the meridian. |

Some anomalous behaviour was also recorded during the eclipse of the Moon on 21 December 2010. The data show a variation (increase) in gravity of around 30 millionths, equal to a variation of 20 millionths of g, and corresponding to around 45 milligals. |

Instead, during the catastrophic earthquake in Japan (11 March 2011), the gravimeter recorded the event with low frequency signals and gravity diminished by 40 millionths of g, with only a half wave reduction. |

The phase difference between the wave recorded by seismographs and that by the pendulum, with a 1241-second lag, indicates that this is a phenomenon of a gravitational nature, since the whole wave would have persisted for around 13 minutes and, therefore, with a frequency certainly not comparable to that of the seismic waves. |

The ‘hidden variables’ in quantum mechanics and superfluid aether |

Nina Sotina – nsotina@gmail.com |

The formalism of quantum mechanics describes many observations well but at present time there is no physical interpretation of this formalism that would not have contradictions within it or with other known theories. Note, that followers of the Copenhagen interpretation have difficulty explaining “the essentially quantum effects”. An alternative to Copenhagen, a causal interpretation of quantum formalism, suggests the existence of «hidden variables». However, it was proven that the hidden variables might be either “nonlocal”, or a physical field wherein disturbances can spread at speeds greater than the speed of light. Introduction of such a field in physics contradicts the theory of relativity. |

D. Bohm made an attempt to preserve the causal interpretation, and at the same time to escape contradiction with the theory of relativity. He introduced the idea of quantum nonlocality in physics. In the present work author proves mathematically that some of the assumptions in the Bohm’s work were incorrect. |

The present work is based on a postulate that a field exists wherein disturbances can spread at speeds greater than the speed of light, basically, author accepts the existence of a material medium (like aether). With this assumption it is proven that the Schrödinger equation can be derived from the laws of classical mechanics. Moreover it is proven that an electron’s spin in аn atom processes. |

If one assumes that the aether is similar in its properties to superfluid, then, in accordance with the properties of superfluid, the electron’s motion in an atom must form structures (quasi-particles) in the aether. It is demonstrated in this case that the natural frequencies of the atom are the frequencies of precession of the quasi-particle’s spin. |

Interaction gamma ray with a gravitational field |

Aleksandr Tsybin |

Another attempt to explain the red shift of the distance to the object, rather than the Doppler effect. |

IS THERE A BLACK HOLE? |

Aleksandr Tsybin |

The possible existence of such an object repeatedly discussed from different points of view. Prevailing view now it is believed that such an object exists, it has a tremendous force attraction such that for him the escape velocity exceeds the speed of light in vacuum, and so the light can not leave. But there other points of view, who argue that such objects in nature not. One of those perspectives is presented below. |

Some assumptions concerning the interpretation Michelson-Morley experiment. |

Aleksandr Tsybin |

The famous Michelson-Morley experiment gave a negative result. To justify this result, Einstein formulated his famous postulate. The article is an attempt to explain the different outcome of this experiment, based on the well-known formula of Planck. |

The Principle of Relativity, E=mc2, and Photons; Something is Amiss! |

Anton Vrba – anton.vrba@multistein.com |

Ryde, Isle of Wight, United Kingdom |

This paper reconstructs the argumentation of Einstein that resulted in the iconic equation E=mc2, and then continues the thought process to show that there is no unique solution to the mechanics of photons reflecting off moving mirrors that satisfy observations from any moving reference system. This not only contradicts the principle of relativity and consequently the special theory of relativity, it also challenges the explanation given for the Doppler effect for electro-magnetic radiation. |

Tired Light a Consequence from its Bending |

Anton Vrba – anton.vrba@multistein.com |

Ryde, Isle of Wight, United Kingdom |

This paper investigates the bending of light and proves as a consequence that light does tire. Observational evidence supports this fact. |

The Hotson / Westergard Universe Model: Halton Arp and Structure Formation via Ejection of Matter from the Center of Galaxies |

Billie Westergard – westerb@udel.edu |

Trustee and Technical Associate Mount Cuba Astronomical Observatory P.O. Box 3915 Wilmington, DE 19807 |

This paper provides information on the cause, energy source, matter origin, and ejection of matter from the centers of galaxies as observed by Halton Arp. The greatest observational astronomer of all time. |

Revisions to the history of Einstein’s Relativity |

Roger J Anderton – R.J.Anderton@btinternet.com |

In 1919 Einstein became famous and this created major problems in the history of Einstein’s Relativity resulting in several revisions of history. Einstein did not provide references in his famous paper on special relativity and did not thus provide information on how his ideas related to others who had worked on relativity related ideas before him. Thus there was no clear connection between Einstein’s version of relativity theory with other workers like Poincare and Lorentz who were deemed working on relativity theory before Einstein became famous. This created masses of confusion as to whether Einstein’s work was to be interpreted as extending on earlier workers of relativity theory or should be taken to be something completely different. Hence revision of science history had to follow, with Poincare and Lorentz deemed working on relativity theory before 1919, having to be re-interpreted as they weren’t working on the (accepted form) of relativity theory post-1919. i.e. Before Einstein’s fame: relativity theory was taken to be Poincare-Lorentz theory, but after Einstein became famous, relativity theory had to instead be interpreted as his 1905 theory. No clear reasoning can show transition between these theories, hence leading to confusion. But the confusion did not stop there, further revisions of history had to follow where what was deemed Einstein’s relativity had to undergone further changes. Many dissidents point out problems with Einstein’s relativity, this is reflected in the history of Einstein’s relativity having had to undergone its numerous revisions. Those dissidents often point out Einstein did nearly irreparable damage to physics by his actions, those actions also caused nearly irreparable damage to the history of science. |