**Dates**: 2008-04-07 – 2008-04-11

**Where**: Albuquerque, NM, United States

**Venue**: The University of New Mexico Student Union

**Description**

Every other year, the NPA joins up with the SWARM conference. The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) is devoted mainly to broad-ranging, fully open-minded criticism, at the most fundamental levels , of the often irrational and unrealistic doctrines of modern physics and cosmology; and to the ultimate replacement of these doctrines by much sounder ideas developed with full respect for evidence, logic, and objectivity. Such reforms have long been urgently needed; and yet there is no area of scholarship more stubbornly censorial, and more reluctant to reform itself.

Conference Authors and Papers |

The Proposed BB/LB/FLINE Concept: Unifying a Modified Big Bang with the LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins and Evolution |

Alexander A. Scarborough |

The proposed BB/LB/FLINE Concept: Unifying a modified BB with the LB/FLINE model of origins of Universal Systems. Due to lack of a viable alternative, the unsubstantiated BB concept has become well-entrenched in scientific literature. While most scientists recognize its mythical (Sagan) and conjectural (Hawking) status, they are forced to interpret their amazing discoveries in the BB perspective. Since myth begets myths, futility is too often the reason that science remains stymied in spite of such brilliance. However, most, if not all, discoveries do fit precisely into the revolutionary LB/FLINE model of origins of universal systems. This paper presents a viable alternative that offers a way out of the maze. Altering the initial stage of the BB via elimination of the impossibility of all universal energy/matter being contained in a very small mass will enable science to get back on the right train of thought. Once past the initial stage of the BB inflation, the LB/FLINE will take control via its processes of creating black spheres of space-time, the densest form of energy, the source of all galaxies, each containing billions of stars embedded in hot gaseous dust-clouds. The smaller stars eventually evolve into planets of various sizes through five readily observable stages of evolution via Internal Nucleosynthesis. The LB/FLINE model is soundly based on the five laws of planetary motion that offer substantial evidence for definitive solutions to planetary and, eventually, all universal anomalies. |

20 Questions and 20 Answers You Should Know About Origins and Evolution of Universal Systems |

Alexander A. Scarborough |

20 questions about our universe are posed, and 20 definitive answers are presented in accordance with the new LB/FLINE model. Some items discussed include: what we know and don?t know, and may never know; the intimate connection between E=mc? and all universal spheres; and the role of black holes. The conclusion is drawn that the answers can replace many things that are utilized in the Big Bang concept that do not seem to be definitive, provable or believable. |

Twenty Selected Ideas Fundamental to the LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins |

Alexander A. Scarborough |

Twenty Selected Ideas Fundamental to the LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins. Twenty ideas underpinning the revolutionary LB/FLINE concepts are selected for brief discussions to emphasize their crucial roles in understanding how our Solar System (and all solar systems) form(ed) dynamically, and why they are self-sustaining entities. Ideas include the Five Laws (FL) of Planetary Motion and Internal Nucleosynthesis (IN) that drive all planetary Evolution (E). Another highlight of the concept is the scientifically valid explanation of why Earth is slowly and continuously expanding, and consequently, why species come and go as functions of time. The new model definitively explains the abiogenic origin, evolution and intimate relationship of the hydrocarbon fuels (gas, oil, coal): ongoing nuclear and chemical processes of Earth?s interior. |

Electromagnetic Space-Time-Ether |

Prof. Athanassios A. Nassikas |

According to the minimum contradictions point of view, space-time is stochastic and it can be regarded as matter-ether. However, matter can be either mass or charge. Thus, there exist both mass-gravitational (g) and charge-electromagnetic (em) space-time. The (em) space-time behaves as a (g) one, since both are space-time and obey the same principles but it is not. Thus, any time interval in the (em) space-time is incomprehensible with respect to a coexisting (g) one and it can be regarded as an imaginary number, which is incomprehensible too. According to the minimum contradictions point of view, the energy of an infinitesimal (em) space-time can be regarded as imaginary since it is equivalent to an (em) time interval. Therefore, in general, the electromagnetic energy and in extension (em) magnitudes can be regarded as imaginary. The electromagnetic space-time can be regarded as a four dimensional space-time which coexists with the gravitational one. Taking into account the existence of negative physical and geometrical magnitudes, according to the minimum contradictions point of view, we may assume that there exists also an anti-em space-time that corresponds to antimatter. Thus, space-time as a whole is described through sixteen dimensions, i.e. four dimensions for each of the following space-times: (g), (anti-g), (em) and (anti-em). This does not mean that space-time has 16 dimensions; simply it is described through 16 dimensions. In reality space-time is fractal described through four dimensions. It is noted that there is a coexistence scale between (g) and (em) space-time and that the probability density function, according to the spirit to this work, can take either positive or negative values. The epistemological basis for the above mentioned one can find in previous works.Presented at Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory XI as “The Electromagnetic Space-Time-Aether Under the Claim for Minimum Contradictions.” |

Electromagnetic Space-Time-Ether |

‘Time is the Other Name of ‘Space’ (Summarized Approach) |

Prof. Bernard Guy |

There does not exist, as beside the world, something invisible that would flow everywhere and that one would try to approach thanks to instruments called clocks. There does not exist, as existing before the world, an invisible frame that one would find everywhere and that one would try to landmark thanks to instruments called rulers. Rulers and clocks do not exist independently of the world, they are only choices among the phenomena. Time and space do not exist the one without the other, they are the two faces of the same substance. This primary substance, we will call it movement, is associated to any finite amount of matter, to any finite amount of tangible reality. Space is associated to the cardinal aspect, the total amplitude, the stop, the completion, the fraction of the movement; time is associated to the ordinal aspect, to the unfolding, the process of the movement. By saying that, we cannot avoid a shift in the meaning and in the bearing of the words space, time and movement. The practical distinction between space and time does not refer to a pre-established cut within the reality, but is made possible thanks to the multiplicity of the material points of the world. These considerations make it possible to read again the theory of relativity, and to re-write the Lorentz equations by giving to t a temporarily vectorial character. They make it possible to solve a great number of problems and paradoxes that arise in natural philosophy and in contemporary physics.This paper aka “Thinking the Movement as Primary, Deriving Space and Time from It: A New Paradigm in Natural Philosophy and Physics” |

A Few Simple Tests to Evaluate ‘Rhysmonic Cosmology’ Concepts, as Proposed by Gregory Hodowanec in 1985 |

Bill Ramsay |

A brief review of ‘Rhysmonic Cosmology’ is provided; more descriptive information is available on internet. Those concepts were built upon basic concepts of substratum particles called ‘rhysmons’ which have only size, shape, position and structure. The word ‘rhysmon’ stems from the Greek word designating atom, ‘rhysmos’, which meant ‘evermoving’. Rhysmons provide the elementary quantum of action, and in turn, intertwine in a matrix structure to form the vacuum. That structure is said to explain forces or fields, particles or mass, charge, and other phenomena such as the constant velocity of light, superluminal motion and galaxy formations. Some simple tests by this author may provide a little confirmation — but much more experimental work remains to be done. This paper is ‘in absentia’; but some tapes of the author’s experimental audio test results will be available at the 2008 conference in Albuquerque, NM.Paper never written. |

The Graviton Equations |

Bob de Hilster |

Isaac Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation has no mechanism although Newton did propose that gravity could be caused by a particle called the fluxion. Einstein proposed that gravity was caused by the bending of space-time but also gives no mechanism. This paper proposes that there is a particle or a quantum called the graviton that is not an infinitely divisible field as proposed by the equations of Newton and Einstein, but a finite force which has effects that have a defined limit. Four postulates are proposed that lead to a step by step development of the graviton equation. The curves for gravitational acceleration are compared using measured data, Newton?s equations, and the graviton equation. |

The Graviton Equations |

An Equation for G |

Bob de Hilster |

The comparative results of the graviton equation to Newton’s gravity equation show that the force curves and gravitational acceleration curves are similar but different. In an attempt to understand how they could be similar, a special case is developed that explains how this was possible. In the process, an equation for the gravitation constant G was developed. These calculations from the graviton equation have shown that G in fact may be a curve and not a constant. However, in extreme cases, the equation for G is may be either invalid or not needed at all. But it may also help determine if the graviton is the cause of gravity. |

An Equation for G |

The Graviton Experiment |

Bob de Hilster |

This paper describes and experiment which attempts to prove that the graviton or gravity quantum exists by using the concepts introduced by Argentinean physicist Dr. Ricardo Carezani. The experiment tries to find a difference between Newton?s empirical gravity equation and the equation developed for the finite quanta the graviton. The results of the predictions by the graviton equations give different results depending on the experimental setup. Several differences in the equations are discussed along with a general discussion of possible experimental setups. Although one experiment was performed, the setup had inherent difficulties and could not yield any conclusions. Variations of this experiment are proposed, but there may be other experiments that are easier to do. |

The Graviton Experiment |

The Moon is There When Nobody Looks |

Boon Leong Lan |

As another counterexample to prevalent conventional belief, a realistic theory, which is local and reproduces all the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory, is presented for Mermin?s version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment. |

The Moon is There When Nobody Looks |

For a New Paradigm of Physics, Gravitational Mass and Electrical Charge are United as Two Components of One Physical Quantity (bq, m0) |

Dr. Borros Arneth |

The basic assumption here is that all natural forces can all be reduced to a single force. For this purpose, Coulomb’s Law and the Law of Gravity are combined into a single law. This law yields, as an astonishing consequence, a new force, not described until now, having the form of a mass-charge force. This newly formulated mass-charge force is thought to be the force that counteracts Coulombs repulsion to hold together the nucleons in an atomic nucleus. As a result, a further natural force, namely the nuclear force, is also unified. Additionally by reducing the natural forces to a single force, the conservation laws are reduced. On the other hand, such a unification of physics only makes sense if gravitational and inertial masses are different: inertial mass increases with speed, whereas gravi-tational mass remains constant. Viewing equations concerning mass, the charge amounts usually are zero, thus q = 0 with it (bq, m) = m. Viewing equations concerning charge, the error is likewise negligibe, as charge increases with m only by the m/b-th part, where b = 1.1×109 kg/C) is chosen so that F = G z1z2/r2 is valid. Additionally, the mass of the electron per se is small. One can easily subsume mass and charge into a complex quantity: z = (bq, mo) = bq + mi. With this formulation gravitational mass and charge are combined to a single quantity. The result is a single law. When gravity is being considered, the charge of the body observed is zero and the Law of Gravity results. If the charge on the body being observed is not zero, then the result is essentially Coulomb’s Law. |

Ideas, Ideas Everywhere, but Not the Time to Think (or Write) |

Carl R. Littmann |

(Title partly borrowed from Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner) There are many good ideas that I don’t have time to develop or to turn into well-written and well-researched papers. I?m sure many other NPAers find that too. Other NPAers might even have already wisely addressed some topics and ideas that I outline below. But if anything below seem new; readers are welcome to heist and develop it. Below, I sometimes propose only a Title for a paper; sometimes even the Abstract also; and sometimes even the Introduction. (This “paper” will not be verbally presented. Nor many copies mailed to any conference. Some topics may even roam slightly outside the realm that NPA was founded to address.) Text clarification: Paper also gives ball-volume-ratios arising when a 4-big ball array surrounds a 4-small ball array for the Efficient packing case and the Inefficient packing case. |

Ideas, Ideas Everywhere, but Not the Time to Think (or Write) |

Why Some Particle Mass Ratios Nearly Equal Geometric Pattern Ratios |

Carl R. Littmann |

Some volume ratios, in simple geometric patterns, are nearly equal to some important particle mass ratios in physics — such as the proton to electron ratio. Those correlations were detailed by me in a widely read journal in 1995. However, I did not then suggest why such correlations arise. Unless the correlations are merely coincidental, an explanation is desirable; and now I attempt it! It involves these notions: Low density aether votices or spheres in space having a Planck’s quantum of angular momentum; maximum nuclear densities (as in Bohr’s liquid-drop model); some aether-related speed-of-light limitations imposed on nuclear densities ; and those small and large aether balls in space containing small and large energies, respectively. Those ethereal spheres are determined by what fits into neat, close-packed sphere patterns in space, and they share some energies and angular momentum with gross particles. |

Why Some Particle Mass Ratios Nearly Equal Geometric Pattern Ratios |

Cause of the Spectral Characteristics of Quasars and QSO’s |

Charles E. Weber |

This is a hypothesis which attempts to explain the characteristics of QSO’s (quasi stellar objects) as an optical illusion created by gravitational lensing of the photons from the opposite jet emanating from a huge [1] mass at the center of an active galaxy the axis of which is oriented toward Earth [2], by the magnified reflection of ultraviolet and X-rays from a dense plate of ions on the surface of an accretion disk, and by infrared rays emitted from dust and gas further out, the last not magnified as greatly. BL Lac objects are perceived as QSO’s from which primarily rays emitted by atoms or reflected by the ions on the accretion disk are seen. BAL QSO’s and infrared QSO’s are perceived as active galaxies viewed from 90 degrees to the side of the axis. |

Cause of the Spectral Characteristics of Quasars and QSO’s (External Website) |

Cosmology: The Frozen Embrace of Outlandish Assumptions and Myth |

Charles Sven |

Today, the findings of modern technology as published by NASA, Stanford Labs, SDSS, Super Kamiokande Studies, and 2dF along with other equivalent research, easily refute the early uncritical observations and assumptions used to imperfectly describe 20th century cosmology, assumptions that persist with such tenacity that many believe they are fact, including a Hindu myth. The foundations of 20th century cosmology as contributed by de Sitter, Lema?tre, Friedmann and Milne are noted, dated, documented, and then refuted, negated, and countered with specific above noted modern observations. |

Physics as a Building Project in Need of Design Review |

Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney |

This paper develops a blueprint for the historical development of physics in general, highlighting present-day contributions from NPA participants in particular. The metaphor for physics as a building project involves a number of unwieldy building blocks in not-completely-stable relation to each other. Stresses and strains are pointed out, and redesign/rebuilding efforts are recommended. |

Physics as a Building Project in Need of Design Review |

Mainstreaming: A Personal Progress Report |

Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney |

After 15 years of nurturing within the NPA, some of my ideas are now getting some mainstream attention. How did such a thing ever start to happen? For what it may be worth to other NPA people with similar goals, I will opine a bit on that question. |

Carezani Frame Reduction |

David Scott De Hilster |

In the early 1940s, Ricardo Carezani, an Argentinean engineering student who later received his doctoral in physics, found that more than one frame in the Lorentz Systems in Relative Motion’s derivation was, one of them, mathematically, and physically redundant. The removing the redundant frame and using a single one resulted in a new set of equations that are, conceptually in motion, Newtonian, have a logical explanation, even does not blow up at the velocity “c”, and presents no paradoxes. The new “Autodynamics” equations have been subsequently used to improve current mainstream equations such as the Compton Effect, to derive Bohr’s Atom without the need for wave equations, and to describe subatomic interactions without the need for the neutrino, etc. The math behind the redundant frame will be shown, the derivation of the new Autodynamics equations, as well as the mismatching exponent form Einstein’s attempt to generate the Lorentz equations from special relativity. |

Carezani Frame Reduction |

The Growing Earth |

David Scott De Hilster |

It is quite obvious to most casual observers that South America and Africa were at one time joined. But it is quite unknown to al-most all that Asia, Australia and the Americas also were at one time joined. This evidence leads to only one conclusion: 200 million years ago, the earth’s continents were all together on a much smaller orb and since then, the earth has been growing significantly. There is strong visual evidence that other bodies in the universe are also growing including other planets and moons. Although there currently is no one accepted mechanism that causes this growth, there are a number of scientists proposing mechanisms although it will probably take some time for these to be confirmed experimentally. In the mean time, evidence is mounting that the earth has grown including in the areas of geology, paleontology, flora and fauna fossil records, GPS, and simple physics that clearly show that the earth’s diameter and mass have been increasing and continues to do. This evidence points to the most important question in science today: what is the mechanism that causes this growth? Although not covered in this paper, this mechanism must necessarily span the subatomic to the macro structures such as galaxies and everything in between. |

The Growing Earth – Paper & The Growing Earth (Slides) The Growing Earth (Paper) |

Four-Vectors in Electromagnetism |

Diego Jos’ Arturo Sa |

A new mathematical structure intended to formalize the classical 3D and 4D vectors is briefly described. This structure is evidenced to be more appropriate, for its use in Physics and the sciences in general, than any of the other mathematical structures of geometric origin, such as the Hamilton (or Pauli or Dirac) quaternions, tensors, geometric algebra (GA) and space-time algebra (STA). The application of four-vectors in electromagnetism is demonstrated, where current concepts are reproduced, in some cases, corrected, in other cases, and new concepts are discovered, such as the following: It is suggested the need of an electromagnetic scalar, the Lienard and Wiechert potentials are suggested to be incorrect and also to have an incorrect origin, new equations for the handling of energy-momentum are proposed with which it is proved that mass and momentum have to satisfy the wave equation. Several other physical variables are also proved to satisfy the wave equation, which gives a strong argument to conclude that our universe is of electromagnetic constitution. Maxwell’s equations are reduced to a simple four-vector equation. As a byproduct, new values and units for the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of vacuum are proposed. Then the electric and magnetic units are expressed only in terms of mechanical units so there is no need for the former. |

The Fields of the Future |

Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer |

Hitherto most of the discussions of the Natural Philosophy Alliance have been devoted to the study of classical physics. We have studied the postulates on the velocity of light. Is the velocity of light a constant as was postulated by Einstein? Or can we conclude that the universal time postulate, that the velocity of light is a constant relative to the source at any instant, is the only postulate that is consistent with all of the experiments hitherto analyzed? Is Newton?s law of gravity universally valid, or must it be modified to take into account the seasonal variation that was discovered by the Monti? Can we believe that Maxwell?s equations, as postulated by Einstein, are universally valid, or must they be replaced with the New Gaussian Electromagnetic Theory? |

The Holor Representation of Entanglement |

Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer, Patrick D. Kamavor |

In order to mathematically describe the astonishing phenomenon of entanglement it is necessary to introduce a new type of holor. If a beam of light is incident on a barium borate crystal the incident light breaks into a pair of twin beams which make equal but opposite angles with the normal direction to the surface of the crystal. In order to represent this extraordinary behavior it is necessary to introduce a trivalent holor , which we have called a twinor. |

Structural Skew Topology and Field Structure Theory: Part One |

Don Briddell |

This Part reports on new explorations into how loops of action link and knot to form three-dimensional hierarchies of structure producing a new family of topological form called Field Structures. Anyone interested in loop structure may find this research interesting particularly as it relates to fundamental mass/energy forms. SST investigates the meaning of structure finding that structure is a field property at all scales of experience suggesting that our difficulty with understanding Nature has been a systemic misunderstanding of structure. SST is a field topology. Previous attempts to apply knots to particles and atoms have failed. Structural Skew Topology (SST) predicts the known values of particle mass. SST organizes loops into a Sierpinski triangle fractal from which mass values can be derived. Particles evolve within the hierarchy but are measured when separated from the hierarchy. Without knowing the mass values as they evolve in the hierarchy, it has not been obvious why the independent particles masses are what they are. SST first constructs the mass values in terms of loops in the hierarchy so that when the particles are removed hierarchy their known mass values appear. |

Structural Skew Topology and Field Structure Theory: Part Two |

Don Briddell |

Field Structures generated by Structural Skew Topology relate to fundamental particles and explain mass & energy values. Action loops at Planck scale build a Sierpinski triangle fractal from which mass values can be derived. Particle mass values are measured and weighed outside of the natural hierarchy from which they are formed. Mass values inside the hierarchy are determined in terms of loops of action. When hierarchy decay occurs, hierarchy loop numbers are subtracted to obtain mass values for the stand-alone particles. Without knowing the mass values of the particles IN the hierarchy, particle mass values on their own appear unrelated. Inside the hierarchy particles share energy and have greater mass. Outside the hierarchy they cannot sustain the higher energies and decay. The structure of both bosons and fermions are modeled and explained, along with the mechanics of energy exchanges. FST views particles as the product of interacting loops which produce fields in which particles arise. FST delineates the topology of fields. Energy bosons are twists of the action loops of the field while mass fermions are a count of the action loops (circuits) in field. Loops are linked to twist in a fixed relationship accounting for the mass/energy relation in E = mc2. |

www.fieldstructure.org |

Coming Full Circle With Quantum Hall Explanations |

Dr. Evert Jan Post |

The vast majority of attempts at describing how the two quantum Hall effects fit existing theory have started out by viewing the phonemena in a Copenhagen-Schroedinger perspective. In the course of time extraneous adaptations had to be made ranging from fractional charge, composite fermions all the way to a Chern-Simmons 3-forms invoking strings. Yet this step of entering the field now reveals a structural topology not conveyable by statistical Schr?dinger methods. Ironically, the 1- and 2-form components of a physical 3-form used by Kiehn unify integer and fractional effects. More ironic is that this option had already been reported in ref.12 prior to the announced discovery of the fractional effect in 1982. |

Coming Full Circle With Quantum Hall Explanations |

Transition From Aharonov-Bohm to Schr?dinger is Derivation: The Other Way Around is Bose-Einstein Condensation |

Dr. Evert Jan Post |

The paper is an interpretive adjustment of quantum fundamentals. Early days have been marked by too freely taken refuge in non-classical concepts that have not led to substantiation. While Schr?dinger’s mathematical structure is not affected, incisive interpretive changes are called for. Its applicability now strictly covers only ensembles subject to classical statistics. Nonclassical statistics are in-complete temporary escapes. The pre-statistical processes of Aharonov-Bohm and Gauss Amp?re, have been extended by Kiehn into a de Rham cohomology, applying to single systems. Metric independence secures macro and micro applicability. The pre-1925 quantum methods are so recast into probes of single system topological structue. Unlike the deep-freeze nonclasical statistics, a classical statistics permits disorder-order transitions e.g., Bose-Einstein condensation. These transitions help in understanding a range of related phe-nomena. The Y function so becomes a correlation statistics describing mutual phase and orientation behavior in the ensemble; this re-places the current Copenhagen’s probability density of presence. |

http://www22.pair.com/csdc/car/carfre56.htm |

Photo-Electric Conversions: the Corpuscles in an H-Atom |

Francis Viren Fernandes |

The true corpuscular or photon nature of an Hydrogen atom and a proton, is conclusively evinced in this paper. The ionization energy in an Hydrogen atom is observed due to pair production. In reality fusion of a Rydberg Photon with the 13.6 eV introduced photon mass produces an electron positron pair. A Rydberg photon mass is of 2.425434789 x 10-35 kg and its radius is precisely twice Bohr’s radius. Furthermore, a mass similar to that of a proton fuses with the 9.382723128 x 108 eV introduced photon mass to produce an electron-positron pair. It is proven that this mass of 1.672622216 x 10-27 kg is comprised of 6.8961747 x 107 Rydberg photons. Pair production substantiates the absence of an electron in the ground state of a Hydrogen atom. |

Photo-Electric Conversions: the Corpuscles in an H-Atom |

The Time of Perihelion Passage and the Longitude of Perihelion of Nemesis |

Glen W. Deen |

If Nemesis, a hypothetical brown dwarf star, periodically passes through the inner solar system, it should have perturbed the orbits of the planets substantially, especially near times of perihelion passage. Yet almost no such perturbations have been detected. This can be explained if Nemesis is really comprised of two stars with complementary orbits such that their perturbing accelerations tend to cancel at the Sun. If these orbits are also inclined by 90?, the planet orbit changes could have been minimal even if acceleration cancellation was not perfect. This would be especially true for planets that were all on the opposite side of the Sun from Nemesis during the passage. With this in mind, a search was made for significant planet alignments. On July 5, 2079 Mercury, Earth, Mars+180?, and Jupiter will align at a mean polar longitude of 102.161??0.206?. Nemesis A is expected to arrive 180? away at a perihelion longitude of 282.161??0.206? and a perihelion distance of 3.971 AU, the Kirkwood 3/2 resonance with Jupiter at that time. On July 13, 2079 Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune+180? will align at a mean polar longitude of 299.155??0.008?. Nemesis B is expected to arrive at that perihelion longitude and at a perihelion distance of 67.25 AU, outside the Kuiper Belt. The mass of Nemesis A has been estimated to be 2.545 Jupiter masses, and the mass of Nemesis B has been estimated to be 0.4325 solar mass. The ternary system of Sun, Nemesis A, and Nemesis B are apparently maverick members of a globular cluster of cold dark stars, and they orbit its center with a period of about 26,200 years and an eccentricity of about 0.009. The ecliptic longitude of the center of this cluster is about 258?, but the latitude has not been determined. This paper suggests that this orbit, not the presumed lunisolar torque, is the cause of the precession of the equinoxes as suggested by Walter Cruttenden. It also suggests that cold dark globular clusters, not recognized by conventional astronomers, have been misidentified as cosmic voids. In fact, there is a huge cosmic void located at that longitude and having a latitude of about +24?. |

The Time of Perihelion Passage and the Longitude of Perihelion of Nemesis (Abstracts_9.pdf not found) |

Resolution of the SLT-Order Paradox |

Dr. Glenn Borchardt |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT) states that the entropy or disorder of an isolated system can only increase. And yet, we see numerous systems all around us that that clearly have decreasing entropy and increasing order: the SLT-Order Paradox. Systems philosophers have proposed numerous solutions to the paradox without success. From Schr?dinger?s ?negentropy? to Prigogine?s ?fluctuations,? ?distance from equilibrium,? ?nonlinearity,? or ?self-organizing,? there always has been residual bias in favor of the system over the environment. At one extreme, the SLT was said to predict the eventual ?heat death? of the finite, expanding universe. As with all paradoxes, however, the solution simply involves a change in beginning assumptions. The paradox dissolves if one considers the universe to be infinite. Then, the SLT is a law of divergence; its complement is a law of convergence. Matter leaving one portion of the infinite, 3-dimensional universe invariably converges upon matter in another portion of that universe. Destruction in one place leads to construction in another place. The resulting complementarity shows the SLT to be a restatement of Newton?s First Law of Motion in which the word ?unless? is replaced by the word ?until,? in tune with Infinite Universe Theory. The imagined ?ideal isolation? required by the SLT has an equally imaginary ?ideal nonisolation? required by its complement. All real systems come into being at the behest of relative nonisolation and dissipate at the behest of relative isolation. Complementarity is essential for univironmental determinism, the universal mechanism of evolution stating that what happens to a portion of the universe is determined by the infinite matter in motion within and without. |

Resolution of the SLT-Order Paradox |

How Much Lower is the Frequency of a Solid State Oscillator When it is Moving Relative to the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) |

Dr. Hartwig Wolfgang Thim |

The postulates of special relativity and the Lorentz ether theory could easily be tested by measuring the resonance frequency of a microwave resonator as it strongly depends on the phase velocities of the waves travelling back and forth. If, for example, a signal is injected into a shorted transmission line a standing wave voltage distribution is formed by the two waves travelling at phase velocities c-u and c+u, with u being the absolute velocity of our solar system in the direction of LEO, i.e., u = 390km/s. The wavelength ? of the standing wave is reduced by the well known factor (1-u2/c2). However, the decrease of ? for u = 390km/s is very small, so that probing the wavelength will not likely yield a meaningful value for the absolute velocity u. A more successful method might be to connect the resonator to an active element such as a bipolar transistor and build a solid state oscillator. The frequency of operation can easily be calculated and it will be shown that it does neither depend on the square root of (1-u2/c2) as special relativity predicts due to “time dilation” nor on (1-u2/c2) as the Lorentz Ether Theory would predict. The calculation rather shows that all circuit elements will contribute to some other dependence which can be calculated numerically or determined experimentally. Thus a series of experiments with different solid state oscillator circuits could be performed in order to measure the actual ticking rate of clocks (=oscillators) at rest or in motion relative to the ether, to the cosmic microwave background (Smoot’s New Aether) or relative to whatever. When two different oscillator circuits would be operated in a common laboratory on earth during a 12 hours period of time (half a revolution of the earth) and different frequency readings would be observed after they had initially been tuned to the same frequency this would indicate that the Lorentz Ether Theory is correct whereas equal frequency readings would indicate that special relativity is applicable. Experimental results obtained with several different oscillators and theoretical aspects of this method will be discussed at the Conference. |

How Much Lower is the Frequency of a Solid State Oscillator When it is Moving Relative to the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) |

About an Anomaly that Breaks Relativity |

Helmut Hansen |

The first step in scientific revolution or paradigm shift is the awareness of the existence of an anomaly. That means to see clearly that a specific fact cannot be explained by a universally accepted paradigm. Although relativity – one of the most driving paradigms of contemporary physics – is working efficiently in the most cases but there is one fact, which cannot be explained by it. This fact concerns a specific coincidence. Physicists have observed that the local inertial compass coincides with the frame of the most distant galax-ies and quasars within the present measurement accuracy of 2.5 x 10-4 arcsec/year. In modern physics Machs Principle is the hypothesis most favoured to explain this fact. It maintains that the local inertial compass, f.e. Foucaults pendulum, is determined by all the masses in the Universe in such a way that the measured coincidence is given. As Machs Principle implies that not only gravity but all physics shall be formulated without any reference to an all-pervasive background like an ether, it is physically considered as the climax of relativity. But Machs Principle could never be formulated in a precise way. The above-mentioned coincidence is still unexplained. But it is not yet epistemologically recognized as an anomaly that breaks the relativistic paradigm. In this paper an argument is presented that could change the epistemological status of this fact tremendously. Actually this fact can be explained as the signature of an omnipresent and invisible entity. |

About an Anomaly that Breaks Relativity |

The Dual Effects of Both Gravity and Absolute Motion on the Rate of Clocks |

James Carter |

Time is usually thought of either as a separate entity that exists independently from mass and space, or as an integral part of an en-tity called space-time. Although many different kinds of clocks have been devised for measuring the passage of time, a careful look at them reveals that there are, in fact, two different arrows of time that are quite distinct from one another, and can even be said to flow at different rates. Every clock that has ever been invented measures either inertial time or gravitational time. The GPS satellites demon-strate that the rates of inertial clocks are affected both by changes in motion and changes in gravity. Thought experiments are pre-sented to show the effects of motion induced time dilation on these two different types of clocks and the actual mechanics of these changes in the rates of clocks is revealed. The conclusion is reached that there is really no physical entity called ?time’ that is more than a metaphysical idea that is used to quantify different types of motion. |

The Dual Effects of Both Gravity and Absolute Motion on the Rate of Clocks |

Turning Back to Coulomb’s Law as a Basis for Electromagnetism |

Jan Olof Jonson |

Successful falsifications of today’s electromagnetic theory pave the way for a ‘back to the basics’ approach through turning back to coulomb’s law as a basis for electromagnetism. In this paper a number of apparently disparate discoveries within electromagnetism and related subjects are brought together into a coherent context. The intent is to gain momentum for a new electromagnetic field theory, based upon Coulomb’s original force law of 1785. Throughout the paper it is repeatedly given support to the assumption that Coulomb’s law is able to give credit to phenomena, which have thus far been explained using either new or completing laws. The first -and simultaneously most crucial – issue is that of the potential functions used in order to derive the electromagnetic fields used today, often called the Lienard-Wiechert potentials. Referring to an earlier paper it is shown that these potentials have regrettably been fallaciously derived. The issue is crucial, since if the potentials are false, the rest of the electromagnetic theory must accordingly be rejected, due to its formal dependence of the former. Reference is also being made to earlier results with Ampere’s bridge, refuting the Lorentz force, simultaneously giving credit to Coulomb’s law. Also electromagnetic induction can be explained using Coulomb’s law instead of the ‘Induction law’. The fourth issue is that of ‘photons’. Using again Coulomb’s law, it is possible to classically explain the “wave-particle paradox”. A fifth issue is that of gravity. It is discussed, whether gravity might be able to explain as an electromagnetic effect. |

Turning Back to Coulomb’s Law as a Basis for Electromagnetism |

Implications of Infinite Current Densities at Idealized DC Generator Poles |

Jan Olof Jonson |

The discovery of the necessity of infinite current densities at idealized DC generator poles needs search for applications, among others cold fusion. A mathematical proof has been made elsewhere predicting the appearance of infinite current densities in the vicinity of idealized DC generator poles with a vanishing linear extension. The discovery was made, as a complete DC circuit was being analyzed mathematically as a part of the analysis of experimental results with Ampere’s bridge in the 1980s. The author has proposed that the research upon among others cold fusion would benefit from the discovery, as very high energy densities will be needed in order to achieve fusion, and this will happen in an electric circuit, too, provided the current density is high enough. Since no reactions have been observed thus far with respect to the publication of the discovery, it seems necessary to emphasize this discovery again through a special paper, focusing solely upon the analysis of a DC source. More generally, the discovery will be of great use within all calculations of electromagnetic forces involving a DC generator, or a discharging capacitor, as well. |

Implications of Infinite Current Densities at Idealized DC Generator Poles |

Absolute and Relative Speeds of Light |

Dr. Janusz Dyonizy Laski |

It is shown that in particular case of photons, the Lorentz transform formulae for distance and time are simpler and take the same form as that of – corrected for relativity – Doppler formulae for the length and period of the wave. It means that considering light as particles and using Lorentz transform we obtained an unexpected result indicating that light is an electromagnetic wave which obeys the Doppler formulae. According to Doppler the length and period of the wave are relative and transform in such a way that their ratio does not change. The Doppler formulae show that the phase speed of the wave defined as the ratio of the length of the wave to its period is absolute. Should light be considered as a wave then the second Einstein postulate would automatically be given by Doppler formulae whether corrected for relativity or not. Light considered as a wave would have at least two speeds: the absolute phase speed and the relative speed of the wave front. Particles (photons) do not have two different speeds but the waves do. Instead of considering the light as photons and introducing the second Einstein postulate, we propose to accept the idea of particle-wave duality of light. In the case of waves it would automatically assure the existence of the absolute phase speed and would provide the relative speed of the light wave front. It is argued that introducing corrections for relativity into the Doppler formulae for electromagnetic waves we should also correct Doppler formulae for elastic waves. Otherwise the first Einstein postulate is violated. |

Absolute and Relative Speeds of Light |

The John Chappell Memorial Lecture and Discussion |

Prof. Jaroslav G. Klyushin |

From my point of view, the pressing questions include: |

1. Do you agree with Maxwell equations? What do they describe? Perhaps the direct force formulas by Gauss, Weber, Spencer et al, Grassman, Ampere, Wittaker are better in this or that aspect. |

2. Do Maxwell equetions describe interaction? If not does the Lorentz force formula do it OK? May we use one instead of the other? Your propositions? |

3. Why is the relativistic approach sometimes successful? Can we reach the same effects in another way? Does this other way predict anything in addition? |

4. Your opinion on the connections between electricity and gravity. |

5. The Gravifield has dimension of acceleration. In order to compare two different things, we must describe them with the help of the same language. What is the mechanical dimension of electricity? |

The Hundred Year Detour |

Jerry Shifman |

“For any speculation which does not at first glance appear crazy, there is no hope.” F. Dyson. To understand the process that brings about the effects of gravitation we must change profoundly the way we perceive the world. We must discard the idea of an invisible “field” that causes gravitation and develop in its place the concept of a direct mechanical effect produced by a hydrodynamic ether. The key intellectual shift involves understanding that the omnipresent ether manifests equally well as open space or as material bodies. Thus objects cease to be separate entities and become local manifestations of the ether. The universal etheric context is always in motion and has a velocity gradient – dv/dr – at every point. It is the direction and magnitude of the etheric velocity gradient that determines the direction and strength of gravitational effects. This perceptual shift is as difficult and counterintuitive as the shift from the Ptolemaic to the Copernican view. Once mastered, it brings the same clarification to gravitational effects that Copernicus brought to the motions of heavenly bodies. |

The Hundred Year Detour |

Falsification of Relativity of Simultaneity using Halsbury-Transfer to link Four Streams of Einstein-Synchronous Clocks into a Square Loop |

Jim Hodges |

Special Relativity is a theory of kinematic invariance, and it is certainly true that the moving observer – if he assumes that his clocks are unslowed and his measuring stick is unshrunk, and that light is isotropic with respect to himself – will envisage the at-rest observer to have (i) a bow clock and stern clock both running slow, (ii) the clock reading of the stern clock in advance of the clock reading of the bow clock (the ?relativity of simultaneity?), (iii) a measuring stick shrunken in the fore and aft direction, and (iv) anisotropic light. Although a one-only moving observer can without contradiction make the assumptions that he does regarding his clocks, sticks and light, the paper shows that he cannot make these assumptions for the general case where he is but one of a collection of moving ob-servers going this way and that. The thought experiment is explicated by a series of diagrams in which four orthogonal streams of robotic clocks enclose the stationary observer in a square, and where the direction of those streams is anticlockwise as seen from above the page. The gedanken begins with one stream of 16 equidistant clocks, all synchronized according to Einstein. Then each moving clock in that stream is allowed to transfer its clock reading by direct contact (Halsbury transfer) to a clock in a second stream of clocks coming in from the right. When this process is repeated for each corner the result is an unbroken circulating loop of equidistant Ein-stein-synchronous clocks which has the appearance of a snake chasing its tail. The stationary observer then makes the startling dis-covery that the clock reading of the?head? clock of the circulating snake is retarded instead of being in advance of the clock reading of the immediately proceeding ?tail? clock. This demonstration of the untenability of the Einstein relativity of simultaneity has a num-ber of implications, including that moving observers can no longer maintain (a) that their clocks are unslowed, (b) that their measuring sticks are unshrunk, and (c) that light is isotropic with respect to their individual selves. With the collapse of kinematic invariance it is found that Special Relativity reverts to the theory from which it was derived: the theory wherein light propagates in a static medium and where Fitzgerald contraction of solid matter is physically real and theoretically detectable, e.g. with a Tolman balanced right angle lever. |

New SRT, Inflowing Space, and The Resurrection of The Ether [Part 1] |

Dr. John R. Warfield |

The objective of this article is to hypothesize a simple non-mathematical combined SRT/Inflowing Space Model [the later analogous to GRT] by means of three-dimensional spatial visualization. It is consistent with the majority of, nevertheless not all of the classical concepts and observations that are typically associated with Einstein?s theories. The major exceptions being that the preferred frame for the speed of light located far from any of the large masses of the universe is identical to the isotropy of the microwave background radiation, and the preferred frame for the local speed of light on the Earth?s surface is equivalent to the Earth Centered Non Rotating Inertial Fame/Earth?s gravitational field. |

Consequences of the New SRT, Inflowing Space and The Resurrection of The Ether [Part 2] |

Dr. John R. Warfield |

This article is an extension of the paper SRT, GRT and the Resurrection of the Ether [Part 1]. The intention of this document is to use the new unified theory to explain known observations and other assumed hypothetical consequences typically associated with Einstein?s Relativity |

Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, Magnetic Pulses, and Electromagnetic Propulsion |

Dr. John R. Warfield |

A single circular loop conductor [ring] with its current induces a magnetic field, not only surrounding the ring but also within the substance of the ring. Subsequently, that portion of the magnetic field, which is located within the body of the ring, interacts with its own current to produce Lorentz forces. Electromagnetic propulsive forces are produced from this process. However, these forces are either blocked by the intact structure of the ring, or they are symmetrically oriented in opposing directions. As such, these later forces counteract each other. Essentially, all the forces are balanced; consequently there is no propulsion of the ring. However, if a directed magnetic pulse [magnetic flux compression producers] distorts the magnetic field relative to one side of the plane of the ring, then for the duration of this pulse, there will be within the ring some Lorentz forces that are neither blocked by its physical structure nor an-nulled by opposing symmetrical forces. Accordingly, these forces are unbalanced. As a result, there will be electromagnetic propulsion of the ring along its axis. |

Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, Magnetic Pulses, and Electromagnetic Propulsion |

The Mythic Michelson Effect |

John-Erik Persson |

The more than hundred years old conflict between Michelson’s results and his prediction is analyzed and explained. Michelson predicted that a second order effect of an ether-wind at least equal to our planets velocity in relation to the centre of our planetary system should be detectable. This means an effect in two-way propagation time of at least equal to 10-8 of c. The result is instead an observed effect less than 10-14 of c, according to [1]. |

The Mythic Michelson Effect |

The Misunderstood Bradley Effect |

John-Erik Persson |

A new interpretation of starlight aberration is described, and aberration is thereby united with entrained ether, as well as with absolute ether. It is also explained how stability in planetary orbits can be united with a reasonable speed of gravity. Aberration of starlight was discovered by Bradley in 1728, united with entrained ether by Stokes in 1845, and demonstrated to be in conflict with entrained ether by Challis in 1880. See [1]. Since then scientists have tried in vain to unite entrainment and aberration. The conflict between a reasonable speed of gravity and stability in planetary orbits is of more recent date. |

The Misunderstood Bradley Effect |

The Three Blunders of Einstein |

John-Erik Persson |

Wrong interpretations of three important physical observations are the fundamental reasons behind the absurd special theory of relativity (SRT), from 1905. SRT has dominated theoretical physics in almost hundred years, without having done much impact on practical physics. |

The Three Blunders of Einstein |

The Mysterious Ether |

John-Erik Persson |

Evidence for the ether’s existence and state of motion are explained. Methods for finding more knowledge about the ether are explained. |

The Mysterious Ether |

Misunderstood Reality and SRT, Part 1: The Important Sagnac Effect |

John-Erik Persson |

The almost hundred years old conflict between the special relativity theory (SRT) and the Sagnac effect is analyzed. The common interpretation of Sagnac effect as an effect of rotation is refuted. The relation between Sagnac effect and ether model is discussed. |

Misunderstood Reality and SRT, Part 1: The Important Sagnac Effect |

Gravitation, Field and Rotation of Mercury Perihelion |

Dr. Joseph J. Smulsky |

The gravitational influence of one body on another is determined by Newton gravity force. Unfortunately, at 18 century the field was entered. And gravitational interactions are now understood so. The first body creates a field, and this field acts on the second body. The concept of field has resulted in many mistakes in the contemporary science. For example, a homogeneous rotating sphere and the same non- rotating sphere have identical distribution of gravitational potential around of itself, i.e. create an identical gravitational field. Therefore automatically is considered, that these two bodies will equally act on weighty point, which moves around of them. Actually it is not so. To determine the influence of the rotating body on the weighty point, it is necessary to integrate the motion equations of weighty point with influence of Newton gravity force from all parts of a rotating body. Such task is very difficult and, probably, sometime it will be solved. We have elected other way and have considered compound model of rotating body. Its rotation we represent as axis-symmetrical located in one plane of the several bodies, which as a result of mutual gravitational attraction rotate around of central body. In result of influence of such compound model of the Sun rotation the computed velocities of change of all parameters of orbits: eccentricity, angles of inclination, of ascending node and perihelion have coincided for all planets from Mercury up to Neptune with results of observations. |

Gravitation, Field and Rotation of Mercury Perihelion |

Science Is Off Course, But Scientists Don’t Know It Yet |

Commander Lawrence S. Myers |

Science is on the threshold of the greatest paradigm shift since Copernicus, but the world?s scientists don’t know it because they have been deceived for the past 250 years by Immanuel Kant’s nebular hypothesis of creation of the Earth and Solar System (1755) — the most basic and fundamental assumption in science. This deception created several problems in science, primarily Plate Tectonics theory and its mechanism of subduction. Unfortunately, adoption of subduction by the scientific community to maintain a static Earth diameter by subduction of an equal amount of older seafloor in the Pacific Ocean was one of the most egregious and avoidable errors in the history of science. Few scientists today are aware the Earth is rapidly growing externally and expanding internally, a fact with long-range implications for the survivability of humans on Earth. It is imperative that appropriate scientific organizations be tasked to confirm expansion and determine the rate of Earth’s future growth and expansion as a matter of National Priority. Contrary to current belief, the Earth IS rapidly increasing in mass and diameter by daily accretion of meteorites and dust particles from outer space, a slow process called ACCREATION (creation by accretion) (“A Fundamental Revolution in Science”, NPA Proceedings, 2006, pp. 191-199) The empirical evidence has been in plain sight for many years; evidence that is unequivocal and overwhelming, but which scientists have chosen to disbelieve since initial disclosure December 14, 1982, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. (www.expanding-earth.org) |

Gravity’s Mysteries |

Commander Lawrence S. Myers |

A FUNDAMENTAL REVOLUTION IN SCIENCE, presented in Tulsa, OK, in 2006, demolished the nebular hypothesis of Immanuel Kant that has misled scientists for 250 years, and replaced it with ACCREATION (creation by accretion) that accurately reflects the slow process of creation of the Solar System and its planets. This cosmology leads to further discoveries in the fundamentals of physics, both conventional and quantum. Gravity’s mechanism intrigued me after discovering that spherical shape enables gravity to focus on the exact center of any planetary body. Observation that falling water drops become spherical, just as molten lead forms cannon balls when dropped from a height, suggests the mechanism of gravity is INTERNAL and the power of gravity is determined by the collective mass, or total (atomic?) weight of all atoms in any body. A corresponding gravitational effect may exist in the cloud of gas, dust, meteoroids and asteroids orbiting the Sun, but spacing of planets in the plane of the ecliptic suggests a collective gravitational power is projected in all directions, the intensity determined by the size and gravity of each body. This leaves unanswered the internal workings of the atom. Current theories of gravitons, electromagnetism, ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ forces, as somehow related to gravity are matters requiring much thought and experimentation. Also, the Hubble redshift as an indicator of increasing velocity at the outer edges of an Expanding Universe is illogical: the speed of light should be constant throughout the Universe. Logic suggests the red shift as a metric of distance. |

Earth is Unquestionably Growing and Expanding |

Commander Lawrence S. Myers |

The long-running debate about whether the Earth is expanding can finally be terminated. The verdict: The Earth is undoubtedly growing and expanding, and has been for its entire existence. Its age is impossible to know because a starting point cannot be deter-mined, but it will continue to grow and expand until it eventually reaches the size of Jupiter, and may become another Sun in the Uni-verse. The debate ended with the realization that all of today’s oceans are relatively young (less than 250 million years old), although they now cover 71% of the planet, and have added 40% to its size. This is prima facie evidence the planet was much smaller 250 million years ago and could not have been created in its present size from a solar cloud of gas and dust about 4.6 billion years ago as postulated by Immanuel Kant in 1755 and now believed and taught by most scientists. Why this theory has been perpetuated for more than 250 years is a question the scientific community must think about. This new revelation automatically removes the rationale for invention of the false concept of subduction to maintain Earth at its present diameter! So, with one simple and logical insight both Kant’s nebular hypothesis and the false concept of subduction are rendered null and void. Subduction has never been proved and is physically im-possible due to the countervailing internal pressure of tectonic force, a force greater than that of gravity, the mechanism that controls the Solar System and its planets.This article aka “Debate Over – Earth Unquestionably Growing and Expanding” |

Recent Discoveries in Physics that the Natural Philosophy Alliance Should Support |

Dr. Ing. Martin Miller |

Up to 12 items of present day teachings in theoretical physics, worldwide, are reconsidered and tested as to their truth. And all of them fail to pass the test. Corrections will briefly be explained. The items are: |

1. Universal creation by one “Big Bang” |

2. Solar systems creation from “dark matter” |

3. Circling of electrons in atoms |

4. Neutron as an elementary particle |

5. The structure of neutrinos |

6. Sizes of atom nuclei |

7. Group velocity / delay |

8. A missing 5th Maxwell equation |

9. Nuclear forces other than electromagnetism |

10. Nonsense taught by Heisenberg |

11. Nonsense taught by Feynman |

12. Nonsense taught by Gell-Mann |

Personal data about the author will be mentioned (Appendix). |

Re-Examination of Newton’s First Law |

Mitch Emery |

Trouble with Newton’s First Law was found in my original study, but the trouble is not easy to see. In fact, most readers fail to see it. Old ways of thinking stand in their way, and so the purpose of this note is to reexamine Newton’s First Law, and to put its trouble in perspective with the state of modern physics. |

Re-Examination of Newton’s First Law |

Inflationary Effects on the Formation of Galaxies |

Mitch Emery |

This note is based on ideas from a previous study about force-free circular motion. Its purpose is to elaborate on the formation of galaxies, and to make clear why the bars of a spiral galaxy exist. |

Inflationary Effects on the Formation of Galaxies |

How Radiation Wavelengths Can Vary by 16 Orders of Magnitude While Speeds of those Emissions Remain Constant |

Neil E. Munch |

As in Bohr’s Model, it is assumed here that incoming energy is received by an atom and then emitted as a photon each time its received energy has increased by the discrete amount of hc/ l , where h is Planck?s constant in Joules-sec, c is light speed at 3E8 m/s, and l is wavelength. If that l is the distance between emitted photons, as assumed by Planck (when c is constant), the enormous range of wavelengths in the EM spectrum is readily achieved. Here, sequential emission of photons from a single atom is called an ?emission ray?. That ray is so tiny it is as difficult to see as seeing a single atom. A group of those rays, traveling together, is here called an ?emission beam?, which can be seen and measured. A beam?s properties may well be the statistical mean of values of its component rays. If correct, the constant speed c of all emissions might be attributed to constant ?escape velocity? from the atomic sources, rather than the still-unfound all-pervasive aether. Concepts by Galileo, Ritz and Doppler still apply for an observer moving relative to the emission?s source. The enormous energies of the minuscule wavelength gamma rays are easily explained by the inverse energy-wavelength relationships in this concept. Also, if a photon is a spherical cloud of energy particles, it would pass any point in some sort of an energy wave profile and references to ?duality concepts? in quantum mechanics may be un-needed. |

Simple Assumption Errors Invalidated Relativity |

Neil E. Munch |

Some critical flaws resulting from inadequate control of assumptions are: |

Lorentz and Einstein inadvertently attributed the variability of an observed light path over some fixed length to the fixed length itself. That fixed length does NOT vary with observed velocity; it’s the observed light path length which DOES vary per Lorentz-type transformations.. This critical error is irrefutably shown in a copy of parts of Einstein’s own 1905 text in the appendix to this paper. That led to other critical errors in Special Relativity. When corrected, we see that light speed c is reasonably constant when measured in the frame of its source; however its speed really is seen to be different when measured by a moving observer. The error in presuming variation in physical lengths resulted in incorrectly presumed increases in mass with velocity reaching infinity at light speed c. Those are also incorrect. It’s the light path length which varies and that has no discernable influence on mass. |

Einstein also assumed that elapsed time of that observed light travel varies; it does not, as explained here. So, there never has been a ?twin paradox? once assumptions are controlled. |

Minkowski based his ?Space-time? on assumptions that zero can equal one. Also that light can arrive before it leaves. Both are incorrect and hence his space-time concepts can also be rejected. |

Michelson-Morley’s experimental equipment was unable to recognize variability of observed c’. That’s because its round-trip travel of light beams obscured the measurement of comparative light speeds. |

One simple method for improving assumption controls is suggested. |

Simple Assumption Errors Invalidated Relativity |

Possible Nature of Light and other Emissions |

Neil E. Munch |

The nature of white light, per Newton?s observations with prisms and the resulting spectra, is first considered. The enormous number of colors and independence of colored light rays becomes obvious. Using Galilean concepts [1],.the large required range of wavelengths might be by met by large velocity variations within the materials surrounding the atoms emitting those light rays. Those Galilean concepts may be correct, but these do not provide applicability over the larger EM spectrum. A better and simpler solution for variation in EM wavelengths over the 16 orders of magnitude is reachable with the Bohr Model of quantum mechanics by defining Bohr?s wavelength in the emitted photon energy term as between emitted photons. Emissions from the atoms are not ?..discrete wave-lengths nor ?. frequencies..?, nor wavelengths within the photons. A better concept might be that the discrete photons are separated by the discrete wavelengths. If correct, this may provide a better understanding of light as well as the other emissions in the full EM spec-trum. |

Minor Corrections to Science |

Satya Pal Asija |

This paper presents a new Universal Relationships Law and proposes minor corrections to the science of such icons of science as Aristotle, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton and even Einstein. Following examples are included: |

1. Lighter Bodies Travel Faster. Aristotle got it backwards when he intuited heavier objects fall faster. |

2. Faster Objects Become Lighter or conversely slower objects become heavier. Einstein and Aristotle both got it backwards when Einstein restated a corollary of Aristotle, “Heavier objects fall faster” by postulating “Faster Objects become heavier”. |

3. Two Minor Corrections to Newton’s First Law of Motion and a minor correction to the Universal Law of Gravitation named after him. |

4. Three D or No D (Any theory based on other than 3 D is fantastic). |

5. Gravity is A Local and Physical Contact Force. |

6. Light is never Waves and Photons at the Same Instant. |

The paper concludes with the self evident inevitability of one and only one reality in here and out there. |

Minor Corrections to Science |

The Spatial Infinitesimal: The Spatial Infinitesimal is the Final, Indivisible Element of Space |

Peter F. Erickson |

Space is three-dimensional only, and consists of infinitesimals. Infinitesimals are points of location, without area, shapeless, indivisible, continuous in all directions. Nothing inconsistent with them, such a square circle, can exist. There is no microscopic infinity. Knowing that they exist provides the answer to the mystery of irrational numbers, asymptotes, “infinite series,” and much else.This paper aka “The Nature of Space”. |

The Nature of Time: There Exists an Infinitesimal of Time Within Which Division is Impossible |

Peter F. Erickson |

Time does not move or flow. Neither is it a fourth dimension. It is completely independent of space, though both necessarily exist. It consists of infinitesimals, the instants. Each instant is discrete; it is here, then no more. Yet, it is continuous; there is no time that is not a time. Our consciousness of time does not come from the senses, but from memory. It is an innate idea. |

The Many Faces of Planck’s Constant h |

Dr. Peter Marquardt |

Max Planck’s 150th anniversary (April 23rd, 2008) is a welcome opportunity to devote some thoughts to the history and the role of his “quantum of action”, h, which he hesitatingly established in 1900. Many-fold are the occurrences of h in physics ranging from the radiation law (the “cradle of quantum physics”) and Planck’s units to some aspects of nanotechnology. Quantization is considered a first-rate revolution in physics, but is there really a continental divide between “classical” and “post-classical” physics? The problem with the quantum is quite similar to that with relativity: Giving preference to mathematical reasoning ala Heisenberg, 20th century physics arrived at questionable conclusions in spite of numerically correct results. Some unorthodox views are in order to give h back to physics. True physical aspects seek answers asking questions off the beaten path. What is quantized? Obviously it is not energy, but action. What possibly links the two ingredients of action together? Why should there be a quantum at all? It might be due to some stability criterion and a compromise between two counteracting variables. What is the interplay of the variables that occur in formulas containing h? The “constant of least action” may still be good for some surprises. |

Spectrum of the Radiation of the Universe |

Prof. Philipp M. Kanarev |

The Universe has several maxima of radiation. The largest maximum, which is called the ?relic mximum’, arises from the process of hydrogen atom fusion at the start of the Universe. The smallest maxima, being called the infrared radiation sources, are formed by the processes of hydrogen molecule fusion in the vicinity of the stars, and their liquefaction in the Universe.This paper aka “The Spectrum of the Universe” |

Classical and Special Theory of Relativity |

Prof. Philipp M. Kanarev |

The beginning of XXI century ? progress of freedom of scientific thinking. Already students understand a full inconsistency STR. There is no force which could enslave their creative potential. Absurd academic doctrines STR, the captivated school and high school textbooks, are doomed. The new generation of scientists will reject them. The classical theory of a relativity has appeared for a long time. In the greatest contribu-tion to its creation have brought Galileo and Newton. It successfully solves the primary goals connected to activity of the person. However, in the beginning of XX century theoretical results which limited a scope of laws of the classical theory of a relativity to speeds considerably smaller speeds of light of 300000 km/s have been received. This fundamental consequence fol-lows from Lorentz’s transformations which appeared in the base of the Special theory of a rela-tivity (STR), developed by A. Einstein. Experimental data which ostensibly confirm reliability STR were found also. However these data had no unequivocal interpretation of their reliability, therefore STR has been subjected to criticism from the moment of its birth. Now this criticism has reached apogee and proofs of an inaccuracy STR have appeared. In what their essence? |

Classical and Special Theory of Relativity |

Secondary Field Theory and Photons |

Richard Oldani |

The field diagram for an electromagnetic wave shows that electric and magnetic field vectors violate Gauss laws. This is corrected and wave motion is explained by introducing a dipole-field geometry for the photon. The dual wave-particle nature of photons is also accounted for by means of classical fields and vector addition. |

Secondary Field Theory and Photons |

The Quantum Mysteries |

Richard Oldani |

The allure of quantum mechanics lies in its mysteries and the exotic possibilities they introduce, such as worm holes, parallel Universes, and teleportation. It is shown here that these are illusions perpetuated by the self-serving ends of establishment physicists. The mystique disappears when experiments are described in strict detail with classical fields and straightforward causal arguments. Quantum physics is shown to be accessible to everyone, not just mathematicians. It is shown that quantum variables do not commute because the initial state of a quantum system is indeterminate |

The Quantum Mysteries |

The Geometry of Quantum Mechanics |

Richard Oldani |

It is shown that the strange mathematics of quantum mechanics can be accounted for if it describes the interaction of three vector fields; nucleus, electron, and photon. A state vector is formed as the combination of two of the three vector fields. This yields an infi-nite number of possible solutions, the probability amplitudes. The remaining vector field, or operator, is then applied to the state vec-tor to obtain an infinite number of possible values for the physical variable, the eigenvalues. Combining the vector fields in a different order yields two distinct, but mathematically equivalent solutions, matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. |

The Geometry of Quantum Mechanics |

Understanding the Mechanics of Wave Action |

Robert A. Kerr |

Most scientists fail to recognize that wave action can only occur in a medium. A wave transmits mass impulse energy by a sequence of compressions in the direction of emission. In a solid it is a resonant vibration. In incompressible fluid it is a 3 dimensional sequence of mass propagation in the direction of emission. In a gas it is a 5 dimensional impulse of emitted input energy. The impulse produces a compression of a surrounding medium of like particles that sequentially exert the compressive force in the direction of emission. Although frequency is proportional to wave particle energy all of the constituent particles have the same transmission velocity. The only explanation of the simultaneous conduct of different velocity particles is equal resistance of a medium of like particles. The collapse of the transverse media expansion elastically transfers the impulse energy to the resistant media particles. The resisting media particles repeat the cycle in the initial direction of emission. The resistance of the medium is proportional to volumetric particle density. Increased density decreases mean free path of the wave particle. Mean free path in a given medium establishes the propagation velocity. Electromagnetic waves are transmitted by overtly undetectable particles. Their action is identical to sound wave propagation in the atmosphere. The greater size and mass of atmospheric particles limit them to sonic velocity. Atmospheric pressure is proportional to temperature. Temperature defines atmospheric particulate density at a given pressure level. Temperature penetrates all atomic structures and establishes the separation of media particle mass increments. Temperature is the reciprocal of the coefficient of thermal expansion. Its action correlates with the kinetic theory of gases and the second law of thermodynamics. Temperature equally quantifies the pressure of an omnipresent wave energy-transmitting medium. |

The Logical Basis Supporting a Universal Aethereal Fluid |

Robert A. Kerr |

The emission and travel of light and all electromagnetic phenomena can only be explained by fluid behavior. Individual radiated frequencies are transmitted at the same velocity. Radiation frequencies are proportional to energy level. The only conceivable mechanical explanation is wave action. Wave action results from the limit of media resistance. Media particle resistance is equal to emitted particle energy. Visual imagery proves that all light particles travel the same distance per unit time. The only known mechanical equivalent methodology is an audio wave. Distance traveled per unit time is the mean free path. Mean free path is inversely proportional to frequency. It defines the wavelength of the wave that is established by an emitted particle. There is no other conceivable explanation of the electromagnetic behavior consistent with the data. Space must be an invisible fluid.Aethereal fluid properties are consistent with temperature. The fluid particles are minute enough to penetrate the interstices of all molecules and atoms defining their mass per unit volume. However they cannot penetrate electrons. Their pressure on electrons explains electromagnetic behavior and the source of magnetic fields.Aethereal fluid particles are in a chaotic motion. However, random concentrations are regenerative because they interrupt the chaotic motion of surrounding particles. The action is the focusing pressure radially inward. The focusing forms a spherical concentration. This is exemplified by the formation of liquid droplets in the process of concentration. Spherical concentrations are limited only locally by available materials. The sequence of concentration sizes is electron, proton, atom, molecule?. to galaxy. The galactic limit is the amount of mass a solar cycle sun can maintain without exploding as a Nova. The sun maintains its inevitable lifetime by radiating the high energy photons formed in its core. |

A Third Alternative to the Generation of Energy by Fission and Fusion |

Dr. Robert J. Heaston |

John Archibald Wheeler, one of the three co-authors of Gravitation, probably wrote in 1973 the last words in the text that said ?Gravitational collapse is . . . the greatest crisis of physics of all time.? Wheeler was referring to the prediction by Einstein that matter ultimately collapses to a singularity and the breakdown of physical laws. Reconstruction of the Einstein derivation of his field equations of general relativity indicates a new interpretation that resolves the gravitational collapse crisis. Matter does not collapse to a singularity. The collapse of matter under the gravitational force reaches a finite limit that exhibits all the attributes of a phase change where any matter is converted into energy. This phase change is a third alternative to fission and fusion for the conversion of matter to energy. Six different characteristics have been defined for the onset of this phase change. Two of the six are the superforce and the Planck scale, which the standard model predicts as the point of convergence of the four fundamental forces, which include gravitation. The ferocity of nuclear explosions and the catastrophic nature of supernova could both be due to the release of the superforce in the transition of mass to energy. Big bang theory, inflation theory, models of black holes, and string theory are all impacted by resolution of Wheeler’s crisis. The 21st century physics paradigm would be drastically changed if matter collapses to energy rather than a singularity. TOPIC AREA: Gravity or Energy. |

Why Did Einstein Put So Much Emphasis on the Equivalence Principle? |

Dr. Robert J. Heaston |

Einstein considered the discovery of the equivalence principle as ?die gl?ckichste Gedanke? in his life. Whether translated as ?the happiest thought?, ?luckiest thought,? or ?the most fortunate thought,? Einstein formulated the equivalence principle as the result of an epiphany he experienced in October or November 1907. He regarded the equivalence principle as the beginning step in adding gravitation to the special theory of relativity to create general relativity. Why? James Prescott Joule published a paper ?On the Mechanical Value of Heat? in 1850 and started an avalanche of interest in the equivalence of different forms of energy. Equivalence was the hot new addition to the 19th century physics paradigm. Heat was also considered then as a mode of motion that led to the kinetic theory of gases, statistical analysis, Avogadro’s number, the motion of atoms and molecules and Einstein’s paper on Brownian motion. Einstein could not help but be aware of the significant meaning of equivalence to physics. An overly simplistic interpretation of the equivalence principle is that ?gravitation is acceleration.? But there is much more to this interpretation because the equivalence principle is at the heart of the derivation of the field equations of general relativity. Various definitions of the equivalence principle in the literature are analyzed and put into perspective. Recognition of the overall importance of the equivalence principle leads to a dramatically new understanding of the general theory in the 21st century physics paradigm. TOPIC AREA: General Relativity. |

Why Did Einstein Put So Much Emphasis on the Equivalence Principle? |

The Historical Asymmetry of Acceleration in Special Relativity |

Dr. Robert J. Heaston |

Newton’s first law of motion states, ?Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless acted on by a force.? Special relativity theory assumes such motion. Newton’s second law states, ?The change of motion from a straight line is caused by acceleration due to a force.? Changes in velocities are caused by accelerations. General relativity follows the second law. Modern technology has enabled individual objects to know their velocities using accelerometers that measure increments of acceleration or deceleration and record them. If two or more objects have this capability, each object has an on-board history of its velocity. An historical asymmetry between moving objects can be measured. Consequently, the statement in special relativity that no single object can measure its uniform velocity is not valid anymore. In addition, the principal of relativity that each object can claim to be the fastest is no longer reasonable to assume. Since length contraction, time dilation, and the twin paradox are process changes, all three occur during acceleration or deceleration and are sustained during the ensuing state of uniform motion. The only thing that is special about special relativity is that special relativity applies to point-to-point conditions of uniform motion, rather than processes that occur between the points. It is time to re-examine the role of special relativity in the 21st century paradigm of physics. TOPIC AREA: Special Relativity. |

The Historical Asymmetry of Acceleration in Special Relativity |

Predictions of the Heaston Equations and the 21st Century Physics Paradigm |

Dr. Robert J. Heaston |

During the latter half of the 20th century, scientists agreed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of four fundamental forces: gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong. Extensive efforts to unify these forces also showed that the four forces converged on a ?superforce’ at the Planck scale. These attempts at unification, particularly quantum field theory, the standard model, and string theory, failed because they were flawed for three reasons: 1) The four fundamental forces were not all characterized as force laws; 2) There is no Planck scale theory since the Planck functions of length, mass, time and energy that make up the Planck scale are artificial units that Planck defined using dimensional analysis; 3) Moreover, the Planck constant is introduced via the back door in the quantum theory definition of the weak force. Whenever so many great scientists work so hard for so long and still do not succeed, it is time to redefine the problem. Consequently, the four fundamental forces have all been redefined as force laws: Newton gravitational force, Coulomb electromagnetic force, Planck quantum force, and Einstein strong force. These four force laws, referred to as the Heaston equations, may be derived in five different ways, and result in several predictions and suggested experiments. The interactions of the redefined forces yield over 100 old and new functions of physics that provide a foundation for a 21st century physics paradigm. TOPIC AREA: Cosmology and Astrophysics. |

Predictions of the Heaston Equations and the 21st Century Physics Paradigm |

The Consequences of Assuming that the Speed of Light is not Constant |

Dr. Robert J. Heaston |

The speed of light is the mortar that holds together the 20th century physics paradigm, which we have inherited in the 21st century. Many different functions of physics use the speed of light as a proportionality constant, a necessary component, or a limiting condition. Examples abound: special relativity, general relativity, mass-energy equivalence, fine structure constant, Rydberg number, Boltzmann constant, uncertainty principle, electromagnetic spectrum, Maxwell equations, Compton wavelength, properties of free space, Planck scale and many others. Some functions, that will be described, are new to the accepted physics paradigm, such as a specific superforce and the constant gravitation potential of light. The objective of this paper is to show how much of physics is dependent upon the speed of light and to indicate how disastrous the consequences would be if the speed of light were not constant. The constant speed of light must be retained in the 21st century physics paradigm. TOPIC AREA: Natural Philosophy. |

The Consequences of Assuming that the Speed of Light is not Constant |

Interpreting SN 2006gy from a Modified Ritzian Viewpoint |

Robert S. Fritzius |

Supernova 2006gy, which is reputed to be the ?brightest stellar explosion ever recorded,? is generally considered to be associated with spiral galaxy NGC 1260, some 240 million light years from the solar system. On the other hand, three astrometrically determined positions for the supernova are radically inconsistent with the calculated distance to the spiral galaxy. Walter Ritz’s (1908) ballistic emission theory (which predicts apparent time modulation for close binary stars) as modified by J.G. Fox’s (1965) extinction theorem, is used to explain the kinematics of the apparent proper motion anomalies for the supernova. Ritzian relativity predicts that the progenitor of SN 2006gy will eventually be found not to be the death of an extremely massive star but rather a (1913) de Sitter binary star whimsical image, and it will be an nearby neighbor to the solar system. See the online version link above to see the animations for some of the slides |

Interpreting SN 2006gy from a Modified Ritzian Viewpoint |

The Problem with Theoretical Physics |

Prof. Roger A. Rydin |

The Editor of the Australian magazine Cosmos asked, ?Is it time to call a spade a spade, and admit that theoretical physics is heading down the wrong track?? In this particular issue was a feature article discussing inflation and string theory, and others about Stephen Hawking, the Standard Model of particle physics, and dark matter and energy. All pointed to various failures of accepted theory to adequately predict experimental results, even after years of trying. This paper discusses what nuclear engineer Roger Rydin and some of his associates in the Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) have to say about critical cosmological data that is being ignored, about obvious errors in relativity theory, and about new particle and gravitational theories that might point the way to new directions in physics. All of these NPA authors point to theoretical failures in the Big Bang model, to unwarranted corrections made to experimental cosmological data to make it fit the Big Bang model, and to conceptual errors in particle physics brought about by including relativistic theories and corrections that do not adequately explain all the experimental data. Many of these new ideas represent simpler theoretical models that explain more experimental data, and hence meet the essence of Occam?s Razor as areas worth developing. |

The Problem with Theoretical Physics (Paper not found) |

Ballistic Explorations For Relativity |

Sadanand S. Savarkar |

Following in the footsteps of Newton in the author?s science-play The Catherine Conspiracy: or The Honest Relativity, it is seen that, apart from a single constant required to be fixed from the empirical experience, Lorentz?s length-contraction and clock-retardation postulates follow deductively and uniquely from the single Postulate of ?Relativity? alone. Newton?s path to the Gulliveresque relativity for inertial motion, involving only shooting of revolving shells, shows, from simple readily visualisable experiments and elementary considerations, the necessity of a ?velocity-twist effect? that is scarcely known. |

Synchronisation Sans Signals |

Sadanand S. Savarkar |

A method for calibrating frames of reference by means of revolving shells, wherein the synchronization of the separated clocks is effected without sending any signals or transporting any clocks. The method leads to the same correlations between the rest-frame and a moving frame as those given by the Lorentz-Transformation. |

The Law of Power Demands Exotic Particles |

Sadanand S. Savarkar |

The Law of Power : is formally unexceptionable, but has an apparently bizarre consequence, requiring perpetual energy flows associated with the internal forces in an inertial equilibrium system – as revealed to Halley and termed the ?Halley-power-flows? here – even when the force is not transparently overcoming any resistance and nor is the state of uniform motion of the body upon which it acts is being changed by the action of the force. |

The Law of Power Demands Exotic Particles |

The Lorentz Transform |

Dr. Sidney Bertram |

Considering that the forces between a moving charge and its target are developed as elementary forces at each point in both charge fields leads to the Lorentz Transform. The elementary forces propagate outwards in both fields at the speed of light relative to their centers. The derivation suggests that when a charge approaches a target, its surrogate, formed in the target’s field by the sum of a set of these elementary forces, is observed, not the charge itself. The surrogate grows faster than the charge moves, thereby explaining the increase in the charge’s momentum over its Newtonian value; the charge’s mass doesn’t change. The fast moving charge’s time doesn’t slow down ? it just seems to because the target senses the surrogate coming out of the field so it is sensed as it was at an earlier time. |

Namespace Analysis in Evaluating the Validity of the Einstein-Lorentz Transformation Equations |

Steven Bryant |

Namespaces are commonly used in Computer Science, with namespace problems as a leading cause of very difficult to identify programming errors. While namespaces have not been extensively used in mathematics, they can be used to describe the variables, identifiers, and components associated with mathematical functions and matrices. Namespace Analysis can be used to evaluate the validity of mathematical derivations that involve functions and matrices; can help identify the source of variable naming problems in complex derivations, and can provide insight on how the problems can be corrected. Here we use namespace analysis to evaluate multiple derivations of the Einstein-Lorentz transformation equations, revealing mathematical problems in each. We show that, in his 1905 paper, Einstein overloads the ?t? variable between his global and function namespaces, while Lorentz, in his 1904 paper, overloads the ?x? variable between his function and matrix namespaces. This overloaded variable problem enabled them to each produce incorrect time transformation equations. This finding of a mathematical problem in each significant Einstein-Lorentz derivation will require that the Einstein-Lorentz equations be modified and that the continued validity of Special Relativity be reexamined. |

Bi-Directional Wavelength in Moving Systems |

Steven Bryant |

Wavelength is generally accepted as the total length of one cycle of a given frequency. Conceptually this length, as measured along the X-axis, is the distance from the origin to the endpoint and extends in one direction, which means that the value for length also represents the value of the endpoint along the X-axis. Here we find that that wavelength is bi-directional in nature and that the total value assigned to length does not also represent the position of the endpoint along the X-axis. This bi-directional wavelength characteristic is inherent in the mathematical derivations of both Einstein and Lorentz, but is not incorporated into their resulting discussions. Not only does this lead them to incorrectly normalized their resulting equations, they also incorrectly conclude that their input and output values represent points rather than lengths. Once the equations are corrected to account for bi-directional wavelength, we summarize how the corrected equations yield equal, or better, experimental results for frequency- and wavelength-based experiments than the existing Einstein and Lorentz equations. This finding of bi-directional wavelength, along with the recognition that the equations transform lengths instead of points, will require a revised theoretical model such as the model of Complete and Incomplete Coordinate Systems. |

Comparative Analysis of the Model of Complete and Incomplete Coordinate Systems |

Steven Bryant |

The continued mathematical validity of the Einstein and Lorentz transformation equations has been mathematically challenged based on namespace analysis and on apparent violations of the rules of algebraic substitution. In addition, the Einstein-Lorentz Special Relativity equations do not properly incorporate frequency into the derivation because they overlook its bi-directional nature and do not account for superposition of waves principle. Furthermore, both Einstein and Lorentz use their equations to transform points instead of lengths. He we compare and contrast the essential characteristics of the Einstein-Lorentz models with the model of Complete and Incomplete Coordinate Systems, which introduces a revised set of length-based transformation equations, addresses the bi-directional nature of frequency, and adheres to the superposition of waves principles. The model of Complete and Incomplete Coordinate Systems is a wave medium (aether) based model that is generalize to apply to oscillating phenomena and moving systems, does not suffer from the same mathematical problems as the Einstein-Lorentz derivations, and uses equations that yield equal or better results that the existing Einstein-Lorentz equations. |

Dual Dilemma From Faradays? Law ? Constructive Fraud at the Foundation of Electrodynamics |

Stewart Ian Wells |

The original formulation of Faraday?s Law (the motivation of an electric current in a conductor about a region of expanding magnetic flux), and its well-known expression in Maxwell?s fourth equation (the generation of an actual electric field circulation about such a region of magnetic flux change) are examined in the context of energy and angular momentum conservation. It is shown that these formulations, especially Maxwell?s equation, directly violate both conservation laws ?i.e., the First Law of Thermodynamics and the Third Law of Motion. Several idealized descriptive arrangements of experimental apparatus are employed in demonstrating the persistent fallacies in the conceptions of electromagnetic relations from the very outset of their theoretical development: various systems of free charges, co-axial coils and rotating charged wheels display specific (though unintentional) conflicts with basic laws of mechanics ?evidence of ?constructive fraud?? and point to the need for a thorough re-evaluation of the premises of electrodynamics. Several possible directions toward reformulation are briefly critiqued; more studied attention is then devoted to an Ether Traction-Compression Hypothesis to resolve the issues. |

Dual Dilemma From Faradays’ Law? Constructive Fraud at the Foundation of Electrodynamics |

Einstein’s 1918-1920 Ideas on the Role of Ether in Relativity, and the Morton Ether Model |

Thomas P. Morton |

In 1918 and 1920 Einstein declared that ether could certainly play a role in General Relativity Theory (GRT) and would not need to be excluded from Special Relativity Theory (SRT). He thus left the door open for the insertion of ether concepts in both the gravitational case of dense matter and strong gravitational fields and the case of comparatively field-free regions of interstellar and intergalactic space. Einstein maintained that the ether is non-rotational and has no ordinary fixed points and has no ordinary state of motion. This presentation describes the essence of the ether and explains why the ether as described is a logical necessity. |

Big Bang Reaches Deflation Stage |

Dr. Tom Van Flandern |

The essence of the Big Bang theory is the origin of space and time in the gigantic explosion of a singularity. The momentum of that explosion was, and continues to be, imparted only to newly created, energy-rich space, which continually forces everything not bound by gravity to become farther apart. The high energy of the initial space spreads, cools, and condenses to become matter. New space continues to be created even today, adding ?dark energy” at the ambient temperature between galaxies. To avoid edge problems, exceeding-the-speed-of-light problems, and fine-tuning problems, an early period of rapid expansion called “inflation” was added to the theory in the 1980’s. Inflation is expansion of the universe much like expansion when air is pumped into a balloon. It is exempt from the light-speed velocity limit because such expansion involves no motion of matter through local space, analogous to objects taped to the balloon’s surface getting farther apart without moving on the surface. Over the past two decades, numerous serious problems with the Big Bang theory have arisen. We presented 50 such problems at the 2005 NPA meeting, but new ones continue to appear at the rate of 4-5 per year. Now, observational contradictions have arisen to the Big Bang’s two fundamental pillars: that cosmological redshift is caused by expansion, and that the cosmic microwave radiation originates from the background, beyond all visible galaxies. At first, supernova data appeared to confirm expansion by showing evidence of “time dilation”, which would imply that distant galaxies really are getting farther away from us. However, Malmquist bias is a well-known, well-understood phenomenon in cosmol-ogy, and correcting for it is not optional. In brief, for any population having a more-or-less normal distribution of member properties such as size or brightness, there will be both more members and more extremes of properties with distance because increasing distance samples a volume proportional to distance cubed; and at the same time, samples are absent more of the small or faint end of the distri-bution with distance squared because those members are harder to see. The net of these two effects is a continuing skew in samples with increasing distance, biased toward seeing the most extreme on the high side (e.g., largest and brightest) members of the popula-tion. In the case of supernovas, the brightest have the slowest light curves, emulating a time dilation effect. So when the supernova data is corrected for Malmquist bias, all evidence for “time dilation” vanishes. This means the universe cannot be expanding. In addition, studies of the microwave radiation showed two unexpected results: (1) the octopole moments of the distribution of this radiation are strongly correlated with the ecliptic plane and solar velocity component through the local interstellar medium; and (2) the “SZ effect” showing heating of the radiation by x-rays in some galaxy clusters now shows cooling in roughly half the cases, consistent with random fluctuations but not with x-ray heating. Both of these studies indicate that at least the major part of the cosmic micro-wave radiation must have a local or intermediate-distance origin, but cannot be from the background. By any objective judgment, the air has now gone out of the balloon (deflation), and these new results mean that the Big Bang is no longer a viable hypothesis. It should be taken off the scientific table to make room for better models. Already-well-discussed possibili-ties are QSSC (quasi-steady-state cosmology), PC (plasma cosmology), VMC (variable-mass cosmology), and MM (meta model). |

Building a Better Physics Paradigm – Power Point Presentation |

Francis Viren Fernandes |

Building a Better Physics Paradigm – Power Point Presentation (PDF) |

The Effects of Human Perception & the Human Mind on Building a New Paradigm for Physics |

William R. Hohenberger |

The world that we perceive is actually an illusion created within the boundaries of our mind, and there instead exists another world beyond our human perceptions, which is made from the transcendent energies of the dark and the light and can only be seen through the powers of our imagination. Our human world is not a replication of that world, but merely an enhanced representation, and is a classic example of Plato’s “Shadow on the Wall”. The universal world is filled with a single luminous substance, the stellar air, and all atoms and all objects are made from condensed stellar air, or liquid light, which are simply visual methods for describing pure energy. Accordingly, objects constructed from those atoms possess no color, but instead are structures of liquid light, whereas color is an attribute of the human mind. The analysis of the color of objects, human color perception, holographs, virtual reality and dozens of other human visual attributes all justify the existence of another world beyond our human perceptions, which can be visualized in its pure energy form. This includes integrated visions for gravity, quarks, electromagnetic waves, relativity, black holes, quantum mechanics, sub-nuclear particles, string theory, the big bang, and a steady state universe. Accordingly, images and sounds exist within the occipital and temporal lobes of our brain. Consciousness, the soul and the spirit exist within the parietal and frontal lobes of our brain. Human behavior is organized and therefore the words that describe human nature can also be organized. Decoding the I Ching delineates human nature and includes absolute definitions for good and evil. The organized word structure for the human mind can be correlated with the I Ching, the Qabala and with Dr. Max Loescher’s color test. Our human perceptions have a profound effect upon our abilities to develop a correct and proper model for the universe, and hence to build a new paradigm for physics. |

The Effects of Human Perception & the Human Mind on Building a New Paradigm for Physics |

Methods for Visualizing Aether, Electromagnetic Waves, and All Else |

William R. Hohenberger |

The universe is neither empty nor void, but is instead filled with a single universal substance, the stellar air. Electromagnetic waves oscillate within the stellar air and can be visually described as constructs of the stellar air. Gamma rays are high frequency electromagnetic waves that compress the stellar air into quarks of liquid light at the resonant frequency of the stellar air within the Universe. Quarks are four-dimensionally shaped charge segments of a gamma ray, which combine spatially to form saturated particles of liquid light as defined by the Higgs Boson Ball. Particles combine together to form atoms, mass and matter, which possess no color but are instead fashioned from constructs of liquid light. Protons interconnect as links of a chain and can be mirrored after the electron shells. The stellar air flows through our bodies and into the Earth, causing our sense of weight and then turns into mass, or liquid light, through the process of nuclear pro-fusion and causes the Earth to grow and to expand. The physics of four-dimensional space and time, the quantum physics of nuclear particles, the structure of the nucleus of an atom, the twenty-one dimensions of string theory, the colors of electrodynamics and the color psychosomatics of the human mind can all be integrated into a single whole through the philosophy of science. Stellar air and liquid light are methods for describing pure energy. |

Methods for Visualizing Aether, Electromagnetic Waves, and All Else |

Electric and Magnetic Fields According to Hermann Minkowski |

Prof. Zbigniew Oziewicz, Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney |

The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained. Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA. NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization |

Electric and Magnetic Fields According to Hermann Minkowski |

END |