Dates: 2007-05-21 – 2007-05-25

Where: Storrs, CT, United States

Venue: University of Connecticut, Mathematics Department


The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) is devoted mainly to broad-ranging, fully open-minded criticism, at the most fundamental levels , of the often irrational and unrealistic doctrines of modern physics and cosmology; and to the ultimate replacement of these doctrines by much sounder ideas developed with full respect for evidence, logic, and objectivity. Such reforms have long been urgently needed; and yet there is no area of scholarship more stubbornly censorial, and more reluctant to reform itself.



Conference Authors and Papers
The Perpetual Emergence of Space
Alan Newman
Newton provided laws of gravitation and mechanics that continue to be employed, but failed to interpret the involvement of his absolute space in those laws. Radiation of gravitational waves in space-time offered by Einstein?s General Theory may be considered to similarly fail in providing a root cause of gravitation, as a process by which waves are driven are absent. Mach?s theory of distant masses is generally thought to provide a non-fictitious cause of inertia, but is challenged by logical means in this paper. Le Sage?s Theory of Gravitation appears to provide a common cause of gravitation and inertia, but is exposed to similarly defy logic. It is claimed, therefore, that a plausible cause of gravitation and inertia, along with a reason for similarity with mechanical force, has thus far not been presented. This paper proposes a new theory that uniquely provides such a governing mechanism
Gravitation from Neutrino Flux
Prof. Aleksandr M. Tsybin
This paper discusses the increase of weight of a particle with the increase in speed of its movement. According to the special theory of relativity, the weight of a particle beyond all bounds increases in process increase in speed of its movement up to a velocity of light in vacuum. Thus remains not clear whence in vacuum this additional weight undertakes. The special theory of relativity does not answer this question. The author considers that in accelerators of elementary particles there is a well-know effect in hydrodynamics of the attached weight, whereas so-called vacuum it is filled neutrinos
Gravitation from Neutrino Flux
The Revised Fourth and New Fifth Laws of Planetary Motion
Alexander A. Scarborough
Discussions at the 2006 NPA meeting resulted in a later revision of the Fourth Law of Planetary Motion that governed the dynamic origin of geometrically-spaced orbital positions of the original ten planets of our solar system. Whether or not the Fourth Law applies in certain principles to other solar systems remains a question for the future. Dr. Robert Heaston and I worked together in restating the Law to bring it in line with the style used by Kepler in the First Three Laws. The new Fifth Law ? originally included as a part of the Fourth Law ? is now a separate entity that continues governing the ongoing gradual changes in orbital positions since the dynamic origin of our solar system some five billion years ago. Principles of the new Fifth Law may apply universally to all solar systems. Simplified geometric diagrams are utilized in the explanations. The Five Laws (FL) offer the capability of deciphering the full history of our solar system.
The LB/FLINE Model of Universal Origins: From Superstrings to Planets
Alexander A. Scarborough
The Little Bangs/FLINE concept (1973-2006) evolved in reverse order of the ongoing processes established by natural laws and sound logic. In 1973-1979, the definitive origin and intimate relationship of the hydrocarbon fuels (gas, oil, coal) (and all planetary matter) were established as products of internal nucleosynthesis (IN) that drives all evolution (E). In 1980-1995, the Fourth Law of Planetary Motion and Kepler’s Three Laws confirmed the dynamic origin of our geometrically-spaced planets as nuclear masses that are evolving through five stages of evolution. In 2006, the Fourth Law was modified and reworded; the Fifth Law was established as a separate entity from the original Fourth Law. All Five Laws (FL) are now included in the FLINE model. Definitive evidence supplied by the FLINE revealed clues to the dynamic origin of galaxies that spew, from each pair of poles, hot gaseous dust-clouds embedded with nuclear energy masses of all sizes; the smaller ones eventually evolve into planets, usually in some solar-system fashion. From this first stage, planets will evolve via internal nucleosynthesis through four more stages of evolution: gaseous, transitional, rocky, and inactive. Black spheres (a.k.a. black holes) form continuously at the perimeter of our spherical universe at its interface with Dark Infinite Space at absolute zero. The dense, black spheres, the densest form of energy, and the starting point for nature’s ongoing creations, consist of superstrings with which white-hot galaxies are spun: a black remnant remains at each galactic center to hold the system together.
On a Minimum Contradictions Ether – Everything
Prof. Athanassios A. Nassikas
Many articles have been written on this subject. The earlier articles had as target the unification of the GRT with the QM on the basis of the unification of the physical meaning deriving either from the GRT or the QM. On this basis, it has been shown that the governor equation is Schrodinger’s relativistic equation, which describes a stochastic space-time regarded as matter itself. The gravitational field coexists with the electromagnetic one the two of them being interconnected. According to this, space-time operators and geometry have been defined. A wide range of phenomena have been explained, the gravitation included, while new phenomena as the ones related to the interaction of the gravitational with the electromagnetic field have been interpreted and technologically approached. In the later papers an effort was made so that the physics proposed to be derived on the basis of mental principles and more specifically from the claim for minimum contradictions lying on the fact that the basic communication system is contradictory. This can be proved through a theorem that is the core where the whole work is based on. Thus, the physics derived has the minimum possible contradictions or equivalently the minimum possibly arbitrariness. Note that all principles of the until-now dominant physics, even though they condense the experience that has been revealed, are arbitrary. However, it has not been proved that the theory proposed is the most accurate. On this basis, the equations of minimum contradictions everything have been stated. The consequences of the later papers are the same with the ones of the earlier papers. There is an ongoing effort for these papers to be written as a unified whole so that any gaps are avoided. According to this point of view, Ether ?Everything is the substance within which things exist and from which things are made. The objective of this paper is to present an extended summary of this work regarded as a whole.
Gravity Experiment 1
Bob de Hilster, David Scott De Hilster, Geoff Hunter
Newton and Einstein equations for gravity both describe the path that bodies take in a gravitational field without providing a mechanism for that movement. Newton was the first to propose a possible mechanism for gravity, called a “fluxion”, whose idea has evolved into the modern concept known as the “graviton”. This paper describes and experiment whose purpose is to try and prove that the graviton exists using the concepts introduced by Argentinean physicist Dr. Ricardo Carezani.
Disagreement between Newtonian and Relativistic Trajectories at Low-Speed: Another Example
Boon Leong Lan
It is shown that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the Newtonian and relativistic predicted trajectories for a low-speed delta-kicked dissipative system can eventually disagree completely. Similar results were found previously for two non-dissipative systems: Chaos 16 (2006) 033107 and NPA 2006 Proceedings.
Cold Helium, a Microcosm of the World
Carl R. Littmann
Helium is unique among elements. Even at 0 Deg. K., it does not completely solidify until a 26 atm Pressure is applied. We perform the obvious, compelling calculation: (26 atm Pressure) times (the jurisdictional Volume of a solidified helium atom); and we explore implications. That strange squeezed product, (P x V) implies an equivalent ?stealth’ energy and also a stealth temperature times Boltzmann’s constant. We note that a weak 2.72 Deg. K ?CMB’ photon would seem to knock a zero-viscosity liquid helium atom, i.e., at 2.18 Deg. K or less, into its warmer viscous state. We consider the reverse; and contemplate helium as a microcosm of the world. Zero- viscosity helium flow is difficult to detect — somewhat like the aether wind and drag. But a Superflu-id is not superflu-ous! (i.e., it is not ?suPERfluous’ ? as Einstein wrongly termed ?aether’). We crudely explore the implications of all the above.
Cold Helium, a Microcosm of the World
The Importance of Clear Concepts and Definitions
Carl R. Littmann
A Chinese saying goes, “He who is good at laying foundations, can build to a great height without the danger of collapse.”My article advocates the great importance of logic, maintaining clear concepts and using such concepts when defining terms. That often requires great work, discipline, and farsighted circumspection. But the reward is the removal of many paradoxes! At present, mainstream physics and cosmology sadly contain many unnecessary paradoxes, ambiguities and ineffective communications — often caused by ignoring or marginalizing the importance of logic, clear concepts and definitions. We give a sad example; suggest how to fix it; and give some analogies. (Some NPA members have already addressed much of the above commendably; but perhaps my article can still add something.)
The Importance of Clear Concepts and Definitions
Cause of the Characteristics of Quasars (or QSO’s?)
Charles E. Weber
I will attempt to explain the characteristics of quasi stellar objects as an optical illusion created by gravitational lensing of the photons from the opposite jet emanating from a large mass at the center of an active galaxy the axis of which is oriented toward the earth, by the reflection of ultraviolet and X-rays from a dense plate of ions on the surface of an accretion disk, and by infrared rays emitted from dust and gas further out, the last not magnified as greatly but coming from a vast area.
Big Bang Fuel Discovered & Demonstrated
Charles Sven
The question of what fueled the Big Bang can now be answered with the latest scientific findings delineating the life of the atom?s ageless proton heart in a synthesis employing photons, the speed of light, Dark Energy, and Einstein?s Ether that fills the Arena of Space prior to the Big Bang.
CMB Anomaly Pinpoints Big Bang Epicenter
Charles Sven
This expanded synthesis, that adds reports of the CMB Anomaly [Axis of Evil] and other recent findings to the 2005 paper presented here at NPA ?Corrected Big Bang Model?, further solidifies the location of the Big Bang Epicenter.
Quantum Theory Compatible Galilean Relativity
Dr. Curtis E. Renshaw
Special relativity (SRT) is incompatible with quantum theory. The major discrepancy arises from a conflict with Bell’s theorem which states that any model of reality must be non-local; that is, information must travel faster than light in any acceptable model of reality. If Bell’s model is correct, we live in a superluminal reality, in violation of SRT, which states that no information can travel faster than c. This paper presents a model of light that is completely compatible with quantum theory and that is also compatible with all experiments performed to date in support of SRT. The resulting treatment of this model applied to Maxwell’s equations produces a Galilean relativistic form, eliminating the concepts of length contraction and time dilation, while still supporting all secondary effects such as apparent mass increase with velocity, clock slowing under acceleration, and the solar deflection of light, to name a few. As with SRT, this is an etherless model, evoking no preferred rest frame, and supports experiments including Michelon-Morley, Michel- son-Gale, Fizeau and others. In addition to its compatibility with quantum theory, this interpretation of light’s observed properties opens up the very real possibility of communications systems sharing information at speeds far in excess of c, as would be necessary for interstellar communications and deep space probes and travel.
The Effect of Motion, Acceleration and Gravity on Time and Clocks
Dr. Curtis E. Renshaw
Utilizing only the principles of equivalence and conservation of energy, the customary equations for the slowing of clocks due to motion are derived. It is shown that clocks slow proportionally to a Galilean transformation of the energy of the clock system from the initial rest frame of the clock to the new, moving inertial reference frame. Utilizing the same reasoning for the case of increasing gravitational potential, the customary equations for the slowing of clocks in a gravitational field are derived. This analysis, applied to the radiation continuum model of EM radiation, results in the correct equations for the time delay of a solar grazing light or radio signal. By considering the characteristic frequency absorbed or emitted by a hydrogen atom, it is demonstrated that only motion relative to the rest frame in which a clock is calibrated causes slowing. Thus if two observers initially in motion with respect to each other each construct identical clocks, at rest in their own inertial frames, the clocks will record identical time. If either clock is then placed in motion relative to the inertial frame in which it was calibrated, it will slow according to the energy considerations associated with this motion. A thought experiment involving riders on two trains exchanging and comparing the readings on atomic clocks explains the so-called “twin paradox” without resorting to either SRT or GRT. The derived equations are used to successfully analyze the Hafele-Keating traveling clocks experiment, and to illustrate a flaw in pulsar timing algorithms.
Newtonian Doppler and the Pioneer 10 Anomalous Acceleration
Dr. Curtis E. Renshaw
Radiometric data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft indicate an apparent, constant skewing between the predicted and observed Doppler shifts. The analysis takes account of ?the effects of planetary perturbations, radiation pressure, the interplanetary media, general relativity, and bias and drift in the range and Doppler.? All such effects change with time, act in the wrong direction or are too negligible in size to account for the observed frequency offsets. This offset has been attributed to a possible acceleration of 8.5 X 10-8 cm/s2 directed toward the sun for both craft. Any potential gravitometric models and systemic problems seem to fail in explaining this discrepancy. Lack of physical explanation for the effect requires a close look at the algorithms used to convert a series of observed signals on the rotating, solar-orbiting Earth to a more inertial frame, such as the solar barycenter. The observed anomalous shift contains an overall, fairly static component, as well as a smaller component with an annual periodic variation. It is difficult to imagine any gravitational anomaly that would be tied to the period of earth’s orbit around the sun. The values for both of these observed anomalous shifts are tied quite closely to high order values of v/c, where v represents the speed of the earth’s orbit about the sun and of the receding spacecraft, and c is the speed of light. The anomalous signals seem to indicate an error in the application of relativistic Doppler corrections to the data rather than any new physics as proposed by Anderson, et al.
The Invisibility of the Lorentz Transform in Special Relativity
Dr. Curtis E. Renshaw
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On the Visual Images that Atoms Create
Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney
Every element in the Periodic Table admits a set of ?ionization potentials? (IP?s), the number of them being equal to the element nuclear charge Z. If we knew all the IP?s for all of the known elements, we would have on the order of 5000 data items. We do not presently have nearly that many of them, since most of them are as yet too difficult to measure. In fact, less than 400 of them are readily available. Nevertheless, this is a rich database for study in parallel with study of physical theory. It reveals a recurring regular pattern, with clarity sufficient to imply plausible predictions about all the thousands of IP data points not yet measured. It proves that existing theories are wrong in several respects, and it can guide the development of a better theory. I first began talking about this exercise to this audience here at Storrs four years ago, and the present paper is a further update. The developing physical theory avoids the unprovable postulates concerning constant light speed c and action quantum h that were so basic to physics in the 20th century, and replaces them both with just one possibly provable new postulate concerning light propagation. The new theory is more consistent with the observable behavior of IP?s. It also explains the stability of neutral atoms overall, and recently also the stability of same-sign charge clusters, which I believe are constituents of all trans-Hydrogenic atoms.
On the Visual Images that Galaxies Create
Dr. Cynthia Kolb Whitney
The visual image of a spiral galaxy is one of the most tantalizing images in Nature. And it is very pervasive. Whether large or small, young or old, heavily or sparsely populated with stars, galaxies usually show spiral arms. And this is true despite the fact that galaxies are not rigid bodies, so any particular structure ought to unravel over time, and so ought not to appear pervasive at any moment in time. The mechanism that creates and sustains the pervasive spiral galaxy form is presently a subject for debate. Candidate mechanisms include both gravitational and electromagnetic ones. With several candidates on the table, I feel free to add another. It is my belief that common results usually arise from common causes. So what else is common in cosmology? Two-body systems are. I believe the common mechanism behind spiral galaxy structure is provided by a super-massive two-body system at the heart of every such galaxy. If there is any non-infinite speed associated with gravity, then the same kind of analysis that my first paper discusses for electromagnetic stability in atoms and charge clusters also applies to galaxies. A super massive two-body system at the heart of a galaxy leads to a spiral shaped background field that the normal sized stars of the galaxy fall into, thereby creating the spiral appearance. I first began writing about this subject in the 1980?s, but have so far not reprised it for this audience. My thanks go to Alexander Scarborough for rekindling my enthusiasm.
Internal Energy and the Dynamics of Quantum Particles – Part I: Theory
Dr. Dan Brasoveanu
Quantum mechanics (QM) is based on the assumption that particles such as electrons and protons are ?elementary’. This assumption has been invalidated by experimental work – scattering experiments have proved that ?elementary’ particles are actually complex structures. Due to deformation, such structures accumulate internal energy, which cannot be neglected. Correctly applied i.e, without neglecting the internal energy, classical physics provides a deterministic and unitary description of virtually all non-relativistic phenomena regardless of scale, including the quantization of electromagnetic emissions, the double slit experiment, the tunneling effect, radioactivity and the discrete levels of atomic energy.This paper is aka “Internal Energy and the Dynamics of Quantum Particles: Classical Model”, republished in Galilean Electrodynamics, V19, N1, pp. 3-9 (2008).
Internal Energy and the Dynamics of Quantum Particles – Part II: Experiments
Dr. Dan Brasoveanu
The double slit experiment, which supposedly demonstrates the unique nature of ?elementary’ particles, is faithfully reproduced with objects having a mass of 7.5 kilograms, a speed of more than 2 m/s, and a size of 0.5 m. The wavelength of these objects may exceed 6 cm, depending on the force applied to induce oscillations internal to the objects, which do occur in any composite object, regardless of scale.This paper is aka “Internal Energy and the Dynamics of Quantum Particles – Experiments”
Internal Energy and the Dynamics of Quantum Particles – Part III: Quantum Relativity
Dr. Dan Brasoveanu
Classical physics can predict relativistic effects, such as mass increase, length contraction and time dilation without recourse to particular hypotheses like the existence of aether. The components of ?elementary’ particles are bound by gauge bosons, i.e., quanta of inner forces. The average energy of these quanta and particle velocity are correlated according to the Classic Doppler Effect. The relativistic Doppler Effect is not taken into account because Einstein’s principle of relativity is untenable. Based on the law of energy equipartition, all oscillators within an ?elementary’ particle, i.e., all quanta and matter-like components, have the same average energy. As a result, the relativistic energy and mass are proportional to the Lorentz factor. In turn, this mass increase leads to length contraction and time dilation. The velocity of light in vacuum obeys the classic rule of velocity addition, but length contraction can hide this fact and therefore explains Michelson and Morlay’s null results. More recent measurements, which are not skewed by length contraction, prove light obeys the classic theorem of velocity addition.This paper is aka “Internal Energy and the Quantum Model of Relativistic Phenomena”.
Questioning the Relativity of Inertia and Gravitation
Dan Romalo
Assuming that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length-contraction as well as the Lorentz slowing-down of all electromagnetically-determined clocks are real phenomena, one draws the conclusion that the relativist Fitzgerald-Lorentz invariance is proper, exclusively, to electromagnetic systems. It is a theorem that may not be extended ? with an ?a priori? absolute certainty ? to systems containing inertial and/or gravitational active elements. That limitation is a draw-back of the fact that neither inertia nor gravitation was, till now, experimentally checked on a possible Fitzgerald-Lorentz invariance. At this aim two sorts of experiences ? one determined by gravity and inertia, the second by inertia alone ? are suggested and theoretically investigated by computational modeling. Approximate quantitative results are worked out via finite difference approximation run in an Excel programs.
Questioning the Relativity of Inertia and Gravitation
NeWiki: An Encylopedia for a New World
David Scott De Hilster, Patricia Anne de Hilster
Since the beginning of recorded history, scientists, artists, and philosophers who have thought outside the mainstream have been shut out from being able to publish their works in a formalized manner. With today’s internet and new community-edited sites, this has all changed. The world-wide NeWiki project is the first community-edited encyclopedia for new theories and ideas for people who are seriously working outside the mainstream but cannot publish in a formal way. NeWiki invites those who are on the cutting edge of physics, astronomy, and any other discipline to publish their works in encyclopedia form. NeWiki is a single reference of new works from everyone around the world that anyone can reference. A companion website “Science Watchdogs” provides a more layman’s approach to critical scientific thinking and includes critiques of current science news, reviews of books and media works, and a radio or “podcast” internet show interviewing people on the cutting edge of science.
The Holor Representation of Rigid Body Motion
Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer
The forces on a rigid body can always be expressed as the sum of a sliding vector and a rotation. This paper shows how the sum of any set of forces acting on a rigid body can be described by a bivalent alternating holor, and can be decomposed into a single sliding vector plus a single rotation. This problem was first studied by Study (Geometrie der Dynamen, Leipzig, 1901). The holor representation of rigid body motion was developed after tensor calculus had been developed by this author [?Geometric Figures in Affine Space?, J. Math. Phys. 23, 1 (1944) and ?The Tensor Interpretation of the Figures of Study’s ?Geometrie der Dynamen?, J. Math Phys 23, 103 (1944)], and is now included in the recent text Theory of Holors by Moon and Spencer (Cambridge University Press, 1986, paperback 2005).
Criteria for the Study of Natural Philosophy
Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer
The study of any branch of Natural Philosophy should be based on:
1. A clear statement of the physical postulates on which the branch of natural philosophy to be studied is based
2. A careful study of the optimum mathematical representation of each physical concept to be employed.
What type of holor most perfectly describes each physical concept employed? Is each concept best represented by: a scalar, a complex number, a vector, a matrix, a tensor, or a new type of holor?
The 21st Century Form of Newton’s Gravitational Equation
Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr. Uma Y. Shama, Dr. Philip J. Mann
The paper studies the modifications of Newton?s law of gravity proposed by Andre Assis and Jaroslav Klyushin in order to determine whether either of these can predict the seasonal Monti effect. Both of these equations add terms which are functions of velocity and acceleration to the original function of position proposed by Newton.
The Stability of a Spinning Charged Ring
Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr. Uma Y. Shama, Terri L. Mascardo, Dr. Philip J. Mann
The paper develops and analyses the stability conditions for a spinning charged ring according to the Maxwellian Electromagnetic Theory and according to the New Gaussian Electromagnetic Theory. Conclusions are drawn as to whether a charge cluster can be modeled by a spinning charged ring according to either electromagnetic theory for particles with any ratio of mass to electric charge.
Field Structure Theory, Part 1: The Particle Hierarchy Chart
Don Briddell
Field Structure Theory is an independent investigation into mass/energy values of fundamental particles as generated by the skew geometry of Field Structures. In the 2005 meeting, the skew geometry of Field Structures was presented for the first time.At the 2006 Univ. of Tulsa meeting of NPA, the first attempt to explain how the Field Structures (FS) produced by this geometry are the geometric architecture for 1st. generation particles was made in the concluding minutes of the presentation.Due to the limited time available, the connection of Field Structures to physical mass/energy values was admittedly incomplete and highly sketchy. There was not sufficient time to make the proper hard connections between the FS models and fundamental particles.

This year I will reverse the order of presentation and begin with the Particle Hierarchy Chart (PHC) and proceed to connect the particles to the FS models. The FS approach is coming at the problem of understanding how particles form, from a completely new direction from what may be called the structural approach. I have found it very difficult to explain this approach to listeners who do not build models or think structures.

Physics, from the historical perspective, abandoned model building when the Uncertainity Principle and probabilities became the modus orperandi for quantum physics during the 1920’s.The last serious attempt to model the atom, from the structuralist point of view, was done by Buckminster Fuller and Kenneth Snelson. Previously Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) together with Peter Tait in the late 19th century had tried, and failed, to build convincing atomic models by defining all possible knot forms. Bhor’s atom and subsequent descriptions by physicist during the 20th century were metaphors as opposed to an actual working structural conception.

The difficulty has been that structural models could not muster a defense of determinism because the structural systems that were being used were incapable to deal with the quantum scale realities of particle architecture. Plainly speaking, the concept of structure was itself flawed and inadequate. Field Structures addressed the deficiencies of structural thinking by discovered that action loops structured by skew geometry axioms would allow the structural system used by nature to emerge. The conceptual basis for the Particle Hierarchy Chart (PHC) is that each particle is a platform produced by the interaction of lesser massive/energetic particles. Particles, by analogy, like seeds, grow out of a (family) tree.

When physics measures particles, they dis connect the particle from the family tree to which they are attached, be they a larger particle or atom, and then look at it in isolation once the support structure has been removed. Since the particle cannot be measured in the family tree, measuring it when disconnected from the tree gives no indication of how it is derived. Hence how particles got the mass/energy ratios they have remained a mystery.To understand the stand-alone value of a particle, FST builds the family tree (the particle hierarchy) and then to ascertain the standalone value, subtracts the particles that must depart from the family tree along with the intended particle, to get the proper particle mass/energy values. Because each particle has a different value when bound to other particles as they are in the hierarchy, the structure of the particle hierarchy is the key to understanding mass/energy values.

Field Structure Theory, Part 2: Skew Geometry
Don Briddell
In the 2005, the skew geometry of Field Structures was presented for the first time to the NPA audience and further elaborated upon at the 2006 meeting.This 2007 presentation of FST will look in detail into the way action loops interact to produce three-dimensional structures. FST proposes that structure is a field concept.FST proposes that there is a deterministic structure to physical reality and the unit structure is an action loops.

These action units build a universe starting at events at 10-35 meters. The fascinating aspect of this hierarchy is that it is done entirely with action loops and nothing else and that this structural hierarchy can be modeled at our scale of experience. What we think of and experience of as 3-D form, is the end result of lesser organizations of action loops that have been twisted and folded so that they become the circuitry for the higher dimensional platforms of structure.

A hierarchy of structural geometry is produced using only loops of action that build fractally, synergetically, and in a continuum. The working 3-D models that will be shown reproduce at the mencroscale (human scale) what is believed to be the same architecture hierarchy employed by nature to build particles, atoms, molecules, etc.The ability of FST to produce a Particle Hierarchy Chart that predicts and explains the mass/energy values of fundamental particles is offered in Part One to validates this assertion.

This presentation (Part Two) of skew geometry reveals some hidden truths about the nature of structure that are so revolutionary as to demand a reevaluation of what structure is all about. These structural principles are found to apply universally to all physical structures. Skew geometry will show us why and how our universe is structurally integrated, and interactive.

Electromagnetic Induction and Motor Action across Field-Free Regions
Prof Francisco J. Miller
It is well known that if a wire of length L moves with a velocity v perpendicularly to a magnetic field B, a voltage is induced along the wire equal to BvL. Reciprocally, if a current I is passed through the wire, a motor force F = BIL tends to move the wire in a perpendicular direction.What is less well known is the case in which the wire is shielded from the magnetic field, for example, inserting it in a coaxial iron cylinder. Inside the shield B = 0. Yet, experiments to be described in this paper show that the same voltage BvL appears on the wire, in spite of the zero B where the wire is located.Likewise, upon passing a current through the shielded wire a motor force is still produced, but this time not on the wire, but on the shielding cylinder. On both instances, the induction and the motor force, are occuring across a field free region. The theoretical perplexities entailed by this ‘non-local’ phenomena, acting at a distance, are discussed.
Causality, Natural Philosophy and the Present state of Physics
Prof Francisco J. Miller
A brief historical “tour” of the causality principle is presented, from Aristotle’s four-fold view of causality, to its contemporary crisis in Quantum Physics and String Theory. The “tour” touches upon the views of Bacon, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Laplace, Bernard, Mach, Hume and Einstein. Several contemporary crises are described (dark energy, multi-dimensionality, probabilism, exploding cosmological constant, pocket universes, multiverses, etc). A final view is proposed (old and yet new) to understand the present crisis, if not to “remedy” it.
The Macro Facts of Life
Gary Willits
“We must always change, renew, rejuvenate ourselves; otherwise we harden.” – Goethe.  The goal of the present essay is to establish some unacknowledged, fundamental ways in which our star supports life on Earth.
A Cosmic Lens May Explain the Hubble Flow
Glen W. Deen
Cosmic lenses obtain their refracting properties from the hypothesis that the speed of light is a slightly slower constant inside the lens than outside. The title of this paper expresses its original goal, but that goal was not achieved in this paper because the target galaxies chosen for the analysis are too near to the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG). The MWG’s lens cannot project local group galaxy images if they are inside its focal distance. Instead, a model for a spherical cosmic lens is presented that is constrained by the observed distances to the galaxies M31 and NGC 5128.These galaxies were chosen because the angular orientations of M31 are almost exactly equal to those of the inverted mirror image of NGC 5128, and that fits my claim that NGC 5128 is the negative-time projection of M31’s dark- matter halo.Another observation in support of this claim is that these two galaxy images are nearly 180? apart in the sky. The model initially converged to the following solution using Microsoft Excel’s Solver: lens radius R = 280.94 pc, index of refraction n = 1.00044563, and the distance to the unseen real object responsible for projecting both images, xo1 = 0.34475 Mpc. But closer examination revealed that this was not a unique solution.The ambiguity should be resolved as other conjugate galaxy pairs are included in the analysis.
Reproducing the Pioneer 10 Anomaly with a Cosmic Lens
Glen W. Deen
Anderson et al. say: “We have reported an anomalous, constant acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11, a = (8.74 ?1.33)E-8 cm/s2, directed towards the Sun, at distances ~20 – 70 AU.” This anomaly can be reproduced by a multi-layer, onion-like, spherical cosmic lens centered on the Sun with an inner radius of 20 AU. If the effect stops at around 70 AU then the lens has eight layers, and the outer radius of the lens is 68.58 AU, and the effective refraction index through the eight layers is 1.000587235. If the effect extends beyond 70 AU, then there are more than eight layers. The innermost layer has a thickness of 3.33 AU and a refraction index of 1.000067963, and the eighth layer has a thickness of 9.79 AU and a refraction index of 1.000155628. The ratios between the volumes of adjacent lens layers is a constant, and that constant is within 0.2% of 41/3. In order to make the volume ratios exactly equal to 41/3, the anomaly error bars need to change from ?1.3300 to ?1.3357. The anomalous acceleration towards the Sun is just the calculated ?observed? acceleration minus the Newtonian acceleration. The Newtonian acceleration is simply a = GM/R2, where GM is the heliocentric gravitation constant, and R is the radial distance from the Sun to the spacecraft. The calculated ?observed? acceleration is just the Newtonian acceleration times the effective index of refraction at the spacecraft’s location. The effective index of refraction is the product of the individual layer refraction indexes that are interior to the spacecraft’s location.
The Scientific Worldview and the Demise of Cosmogony
Dr. Glenn Borchardt
The absurd idea that the universe exploded out of nothing is a common-place among today?s mathematicians, cosmologists, astronomers, and physicists. Cosmology has become cosmogony, the dubious study of the ?origin? of the universe. The entire universe is being treated conceptually as a ?system;? a finite, isolated entity. We have reached an intellectual dead end. How do we get out of it? My new book, The Scientific Worldview: Beyond Newton and Einstein, shows the direction we must take. Mere calculation and additional rose-colored observation will be to no avail, for the persistence of the Big Bang Theory (BBT) is rooted in the perpetual philosophical struggle that underlies our understanding of the universe and our place in it. In philosophy, as in science, it is necessary to begin with assumptions. One cannot travel to the end of the universe to prove whether it is infinite or finite. To begin with the assumption of finity, as mathematics and the BBT demand, is to end with finity. However, if one chooses the philosophical alternative, infinity, then the irrationality perpetrated by the BBT disappears and cosmology becomes legitimate. We are left with an eternal, infinite universe that, as David Bohm maintained exactly 50 years ago, can never yield complete equations for even one phenomenon. The Scientific Worldview describes how this universe works via the universal mechanism of evolution, ?univi-ronmental determinism.? Univironmental determinism is the simple proposition that what happens to a portion of the universe is determined by the relationship between the infinite matter in motion within (the microcosm) and the infinite matter in motion without (the macrocosm). In the scheme of things, the BBT is pre-Copernican and symptomatic of the myopic worldview held by society at large. The BBT cannot be rejected without rejecting finity.
The Scientific Worldview and the Demise of Cosmogony
Infinite Universe Theory
Dr. Glenn Borchardt
The inevitable rejection of the Big Bang Theory (BBT) will lead to a more enlightened and more logical theory, but what will it be? The BBT will be replaced by the Infinite Universe Theory (IUT). It will produce the greatest revolution in science since Copernicus. A change of this magnitude will not come easily, probably not for decades, but it will come. The outlines of IUT can be seen by examining the logical defects of the BBT. A side-by-side comparison of the two theories not only shows the logical superiority of IUT, but it points the way to fertile fields of research and experimentation while rejecting still others. Among the predictions of IUT: time is motion; there is an ether; light is wave motion; the galactic redshift is due primarily to absorption; gravity involves a push, not a pull; there is a complement to the Second Law of Thermodynamics; light bending near massive bodies is refraction due to a dense etherosphere; galactic ages will not correlate with distance from Earth; the universe is Euclidean and not expanding; empty space and solid matter are ideas, not reality; matter has only three dimensions. Among the illegitimate pursuits: cosmogony, non-Euclidean mathematics; unification of physics via a single equation; objectification of time; and energy viewed as matterless motion. Welcome to the infinite universe!
Infinite Universe Theory
Observation of Highly Significant Correlations Between Earth Motion and Fringe-Shifts in a Stationary Michelson-Morley Experiment During the Period 2003-2005
Dr. Hector A. Munera, Daniel Hernandez-Deckers, German Arenas, Edgar Alfonso
The fringe-shifts produced in a stationary Michelson-Morley (MM) interferometer were recorded every minute in each session lasting from 24 hours to a week; more than 40 sessions were carried out during the period from the end of 2003 to the beginning of 2005. Diurnal variations of the fringe-shifts were observed in all cases; after subtraction of environmental pressure, temperature and humidity contributions the residual curves still depict similar cyclic behavior. Both the uncorrected and the residual fringe-shift curves were correlated against the projection of earth’s velocity on the plane of the interferometer. The earth velocity at each instant was calculated using the value of solar velocity obtained from the COBE observations. The declination of solar motion that maximizes the correlation with our data is obtained. For comparison, a similar exercise is carried out for Miller’s velocity.
Do Space and Time have an Archetypal Design?
Helmut Hansen
The physicist Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), one of the founder of quantum mechanics, was highly fascinated of Jungs archetypes. He conceived them as the underlying principles of the physical world. He even suggested a research program in order to explore the physical meaning of these archetypes. But this research program never became reality. This article gives an example how this research program could look like. It refers to a structure consisting of different circles and squares that are put together in a specific way; a structure, which is traditionally called a MANDALA. By making Einsteins special theory of relativity geometrically compatible with a transcendent background this archetypal structure surprisingly came up. As its speed limit is given by the speed of infinity, it includes the possibility to overcome special relativity theory (SRT).
The Three Elements: A Theory of Unification
Jack Roberts
The very nature and beauty of our universe lies not in its complexity, but instead, in its’ simplicity. Consider that the universe as we know it is comprised of only three basic elementaries…that of Space, Energy, and Time. By applications of reverse engineering, and empirically testable and deductive logic, the magical properties of space and time together with the true nature of energy is revealed. In a flowing and concise manner this paper explains how the intrinsic mechanical properties of space are derived. Once the properties of space are known, the true nature of energy, and its many manifestations, become apparent. Construction and precipitation of atomic particles, nuclear forces, fields, atoms, radiations, magnetic fields, electricity and electric charges, and the underlying cause of inertia and gravitation can now be explained. Many new and novel experiments and inventions become obvious with the insight afforded by the presentation of this paper.
Generating a Redshift in the Lab
James B. Wright
“If there is an aether that supports the transmission of light and if that aether is becoming more dense at some constant rate, then a cosmological redshift will be generated, just as observed.” In that the truth of this statement is not obvious, it was necessary to devise a means of demonstrating the mechanism involved. This is the purpose of the paper ?Generating a Redshift in the Lab.?, It also goes on to explore, rather briefly, the fundamental problem that rises in the acceptance of this hypothesis as a point of beginning, i.e., the state of existence without an Expanding Universe.
Towards a Classical Explanation for the Stable Electron Paths Around Nuclei and to Radiation in Connection with the De-Excitation of Excited Electrons
Jan Olof Jonson
The fact that an orbiting electron does not collapse into the nucleus of its parent atom has thus far been considered a major obstacle to a classical interpretation of the stable states of orbiting electrons. Quantum mechanics avoids the very problem by discussing the probability of finding it, a method that confessedly has been very fruitful in the exploring the behaviour of elementary particles. Nonetheless, why should necessarily those two approaches be regarded as each others’ enemies? In this paper it is shown that the classical mechanistic approach is still capable of explaining the eternal, circular movement of an electron around a nucleus. It is possible if reformulating the laws of action involved, returning to the simple electrostatic model, based upon Coulomb’s law (1785, 1771). Further, in this paper it is also discussed, how electromagnetic radiation due to the de-excitation of excited electrons, orbiting around a positive nucleus, can be explained classically, as a sudden peak in the otherwise zero electric field, due to the inwards spiralling movement connected to the de-excitation. The concept of a distinct particle, the ‘photon’ is thereby rejected.
The Jonson-Keele Debate
Jan Olof Jonson
For almost one year ago the two NPA participants Mr. James Keele and Mr. Jan Olof Jonson, both Master of Science Electric Engineers, performed an open E-mail debate before a part of the NPA members, about the SRT Theory of Electromagnetics for Moving Charges. The debate began, as Mr. Jonson answered to a mailed paper by Mr. Keele in July, 2006. Now it is their common intention to let all the NPA members take part of their debate
Equations of Waves and Currents: a Cybernetic View
Dr. Janusz Dyonizy Laski
The paper presents the correspondence between physical quantities used in electrodynamics on the one hand and on the other those applied in elasticity and hydrodynamics having taken into account the SI units of physical quantities and assumed an analogy between mass and electric charge. Due to such correspondence almost every equation of electrodynamics is accompanied by an equation used in theory of elastic waves or hydrodynamics. Consistency of the analogy is clear and evidenced in the four tables (P waves, S waves, irrotational direct currents and rotational currents). Some changes concerning the form or the understanding of several equations are proposed. It has been shown that the Coulomb gauge and the first Helmholtz equation used in hydrodynamics have exactly the same physical meaning. Lorentz gauge with its sign changed is recognized as corresponding to one of the relations between stress and strain used in the theory of pressure elastic waves. The formula for the energy volume density of electromagnetic waves was modified in order to obtain the consistency with the corresponding formula for elastic S waves. Then the formula for the volume density of elastic force corresponding to that of the Lorentz force is proposed. The analogy between the Ohm’s law for non-rotational direct electric current and the Hagen and Poiseuille’s law for non-rotational flows is drawn.
Equations of Waves and Currents: a Cybernetic View
Gravidynamic Force
Prof. Jaroslav G. Klyushin
Certain generalization of Maxwell equations was proposed in paper [1]. It implies total time derivatives instead of the partial ones. Partial solution of this system was found for the case of the fields induced by electric charges. Scalar product of electric fields created by different charges determines their interaction energy and vector product of their magnetic fields determines their interaction impulse. Having calculated interaction energy gradient we obtain interaction force as Huygens understood it and having calculated impulse total time derivative we obtain Newton?s interaction force. It turns out that these forces physical sense and their mathematical description essentially differ. Gradiental part depends on charges velocities product and is equal to zero if at least one of the charges is in rest. This part incorporates force formulas earlier proposed by Ampere, Whittaker and Lorentz. The last one is usually defined by interaction of a certain charge called test charge and fields induced by other charge. Actually it coincides with force formula proposed by Grassman earlier. Proposed formula in contrast to Lorentz one satisfies the third Newtonial law. The second Newtonian part of the force formula depends on differences product of the charges velocities and accelerations. Therefore it predicts interaction in particular between moving and standing charges in addition to Coulomb one. It contains items earlier proposed for force description by Gauss and Weber. As in the case of Lorentz force formula it adds items which make Gauss and Weber force symmetric. Certain part of this force is light velocity c2 inverse and a part of it is c3 inverse. Apparently these items are essential for electroweak interaction. This paper is devoted to similar investigation of gravitational forces created by moving masses. Corresponding fields are described by Maxwell type equations in which first time derivatives are changed for the second ones. One can say that Electricity is a field of velocities and gravity is a field of accelerations. Solutions of such a system are used to construct interaction energy and interaction impulse. Gradient of scalar product of corresponding gravitational fields and second time derivative of vector product of gravimagnetic fields turn to be accurate analogues of electrodynamic interaction. But here forces depend not only on velocities and accelerations but on third and fourth derivatives as well.
Electrodynamics and Gravidynamics
Prof. Jaroslav G. Klyushin
Connections between electricity and gravity are investigated.
Ether Denial, Motion-Induced Clock Slowing & the Big Ether Blob Revolution
Jim Hodges
The planet of the naked apes is afflicted with collective madness which puts a long delay on the drawing of obvious inferences from ubiquitous observational evidence concerning physics and cosmology. This has been the case for the Round (not flat) Earth revolution_, the Spinning/Orbiting (not still) Earth revolution_ and now the Big Ether Blob (not empty space) universe revolution. As an example of the deranged delaying tactics employed against the BEB revolution, the (measured) steady reduction of the frequency of a gamma ray source on the rim of a spinning disk was wilfully misinterpreted by Turner & Hill (1964) as a negative ether drift experiment. As a form of shock therapy, the Ether Drift Club has carried out an investigation using a mechanical model of the motion-induced clock-rate slowing observed in the Solar System, in which spinning orbiting atomic clocks are simulated by ultrasound emitters whose frequencies are artificially reduced as a very specific function of their Mach numbers. This model replicates all essential elements of observed Earth/Sun clock-rate slowing, and therefore proves beyond reasonable doubt that there is a matter/light medium which encompasses the universe. However the prognosis for acceptance of the OEether theory of everything_ in the foreseeable future is grim. Unlike the previous Round Earth and Spinning/Orbiting Earth revolutions, the BEB revolution will come into immediate direct confrontation with the prevailing world view, and every vested interest one can think of, socially, politically, economically, technologically, scientifically, cosmologically and religiously. The major import of the BEB revolution is that it will have to recognized that the Big Ether Blob is fine-tuned to conceal ether drift, and on the balance of probabilities provides evidence for intelligent design which is a fortori the case because the BEB generates the various species of sentient creatures without outside intervention.
Cosmology: Gravitational or Plasma Physics or Both
John C. Beckerle
The GRT by Albert Einstein or Hannes Alfven’s electric-magnetic plasma physics, which of these plays the biggest part in the dynamics of our universe? Hannes Alfven believed that electromagnetic forces should have a lot to do toward understanding cosmology because such forces are 48 magnitudes greater than gravitational forces. His close colleague Anthony Peratt, since Alfven died in 1995, continues to generate 3D plasma images by computer simulations that look like over 25,000 images scratched on rocks from all over the world. This seems to demonstrate that long ago people on earth saw these features in the heavens. We don’t see them with the naked eye today, but astronomical images such as the Ant Nebula and many other optical, radio, and x-ray images taken these days are observed and some appear to be generated by electric currents of plasmatic fluids. Peratt has made computer simulations that have the appearance of galaxies and nebula. Moreover, there are many dynamical processes in astronomical bodies, even our sun, that do not seem to be explained as yet by gravitational theory. Do electric currents that generate magnetic fields play a much bigger role in cosmology than gravitational fields? This question needs recognition and an unambiguous answer!
The Geometry of an Expanding Universe
John M. Kulick
A multidimensional geometric expansion of Spacetime results in a Unified Field Theory. The probabilistic ?quantum sized? expansion of Spacetime produces the relationships observed in Quantum mechanics. The geometry of the expansion also predicts the following properties of nature:
1. the inverse square laws, both for gravity and electrodynamics, and
2. the principals of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.
Since the expansion occurs within atoms, the density of all systems diminishes. The rate of expansion is described by a unique dimension of time that demarcates a point’s location relative to the beginning of time. A prediction of the model requires that the effect of gravity diminish with the passage of Cosmic time and that local clock rates slow with the passage of Cosmic time. Based on relative measures of distance and time, the universe is not expanding, local clock rates and distance measures are constant and the Universe is infinitely aged. The physical model consists of two interlaced multidimensional geometries.
1. A volume of ?observable? spacetime varies to the square of the Absolute, or historic, or cosmic time elapsed. S = kT2. (Double the age of the universe and the ?absolute? volume increases 4 times).
2. The expansion of ?observable’ spacetime also occurs along an ?unobserved? dimension according to the same expansion geometry with a present velocity along the ?unobserved dimension? geometrically related to the speed of light.
Applications of a Geometric Expansion Model to Cosmology
John M. Kulick
These include:
1. There is no “Dark Energy”. (Type 1a supernovas are dimmer, not because they are further away but because the effect of gravity is greater in the past, resulting in smaller supernovas)
2. There is no “Dark Matter”. (Expansion comes at a kinematic cost, and expanding galaxies pay the price by experiencing an ?inward acceleration?. Also the effect of gravity is historically defined and the further in the past the gravitational relationship is established, the greater the gravitational relationship)
3. The energy source for Quasars and similar objects occurs because of accelerated stellar physics
4. The evolutionary development of the explosive era of our Solar System is explained
5. The reason Mars had an atmosphere thick enough to produce rain clouds is provided
6. There are no “super massive black holes”
7. The problem of a lack of time dilation in the variation of energy output of quasars according to the observed cosmological red shift can be explained
8. General Relativity, when applied to cosmological scaled relationships is incompatible with Principles established with Special Relativity. The proposed model is compatible with the relationships developed by Special Relativity
9. The evolutionary development of the Universe can be explained without resorting to a Big Bang that starts off as a singularity
10. It is possible to describe the structure from which our Universe was formed
11. The Age problem in which some stars appear to be older than the Universe is resolved
12. The Age of the Universe is determined to be finite based on an ?Eye of God? perspective. From a local perspective the Universe is infinitely old and will never end.
Consequences of the Theory of Inflowing Space
Dr. John R. Warfield
The purpose of this paper is to utilize the concepts demonstrated in my prior papers: “Comments on General Relativity”, “A New Theory of Special Relativity Based upon The Higgs Field”, and “Flowing Space [An alternative to Einstein’s GR]” to develop other consequences. Six new consequences are described:
1. Entrainment or Aether drag
2. The Speed of Light at The Earth’s Surface and The Michelson Morley Experiment
3. Stellar Aberration
4. The Center of Mass, The Center of Gravity and How They Relate to The Flow of Space
5. The Arrow of Time
6. The ‘Rate of Time’ and The Earth Centered Inertial Non-rotating Frame.
In order to comprehend this paper and its concepts, one must first read and understand my previous papers. The present paper utilizes the Theory of Inflowing Space to hypothesize the other new consequences, and explain other known observations in both cosmology and physics. Based on this new hypothesis, we will then reinterpret other known concepts. If these revised explanations are easier to understand, as well tied together by a common underlying simple principle, then this new inflowing space theory may indeed represent reality
The Earth Centered Non Rotating Inertial Frame and the Michaelson Morley Experiment
Dr. John R. Warfield
With regards to the classic MM experiment and an assumed ether wind, this paper merely expresses a postulate?that within a given coordinate system, at a constant velocity, during 360 degrees of rotation, there are compensating anti-symmetrical changes in the number of wavelengths of light within each arm, which prevent the occurrence of any changing interference. However, the same MM experiment will demonstrate the ether wind, if performed at a constant velocity, within two separate coordinate systems, and then the interference patterns compared between these two frames [fringe shift].
The Speed of Light, the “Tic Rate” of Atomic Clocks, and the Earth Centered Inertial Frame
Dr. John R. Warfield
This paper postulates that the Earth?s gravitational field /The Earth Centered Non-Rotating Inertial Frame/ Inflow of space is the preferred frame for both the speed of light as well as the ?tic rate? of atomic clocks. This paper further postulates that these two separate processes are not directly related to one another, but rather are indirectly related through a common separate reference frame, which is The Earth Centered Non- Rotating Inertial Frame. This new postulate assumes that The Rest Frame for the Velocity of light, The Earth Centered Inertial Non-Rotating Inertial Frame, and the Preferred Frame for the ?Rate of Time? are identical. For simplicity of explanation, this paper will be divided into three sections. Part 1 will describe, [1]The Rest Frame for the Velocity of light, [2] The Earth Centered Inertial Non-Rotating Inertial Frame, and [3] The Preferred Frame for the ?Rate of Time, and will postulate that they are identical. Part 2 will relate this new postulate to a famous ?rate of time? experiment performed by Joseph Hafade and Richard Keating using atomic clocks. Part 3 will describe how the speed of light and the ? tic rate ? of atomic clocks relate to each other within the Earth Centered Non-Rotating Inertial Fame.
The Special Theory of Relativity and the Sagnac Effect
John-Erik Persson
The theory of relativity is an ether-less theory. The reason for this is that aberration of starlight has been considered to rule out the entrained ether, and Michelson-Morley’s measurements (MMX) are interpreted as refuting the absolute ether. Errors are found in both these conclusions and entrained, as well as absolute, ethers are both possible. It is also demonstrated that a transverse ether-wind can not cause wave-front bending, and that Stokes’ ‘correction’ to Michelson’s prediction was without motivation. The existence of an ether has been demonstrated very clearly by the Sagnac effect for translational motion. It is therefore important to find out if the ether is entrained or absolute. The Sagnac effect IS the ether-wind and can help us to find the answer. By using interferometry, instead of synchronized clocks, we can reach higher precision. Experiencies from GPS (global positioning system) seems to indicate that time dilation and clock bias must be abolished.
A New Definition of Parallelism
John-Erik Persson
The fifth postulate of Euclid, the parallel postulate, was formulated in 300 B C, and is still not proved as a theorem although many have tried to do that. The reason for this is NOT to be found in tha postulate per se but in the definition of paralletism. The most common definition states that PARALLEL LINES NEVER MEET. It will be demonstrated here that why this definition is WRONG and why parallelism is hard to define.
A New Definition of Parallelism
Entrained Ether and Sagnac Effect
John-Erik Persson
The two main experiments supporting the special theory of relativity, Michelson-Morley’s tests and starlight aberration, are useless in relation to the entrained ether. The Sagnac effect has given support for an entrained ether, and is the only way to gain certain verdict concerning the question, if the ether takes part in the rotation of the Earth.
Real Forces and Unreal Hypotheses
Dr. Joseph J. Smulsky
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained. Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA. NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization
Real Forces and Unreal Hypotheses
An Interactive Approach to Unification
Dr. Martin Kokus
I have started a website,, dedicated to pursuing a theory of unification based on the premises that the earth is expanding, cosmological redshift is quanitized, and the cosmos is a rotating hierarchy with a preferred reference frame. It uses particles which are vortices in an aether and does not require quarks. I will describe how I hope the theory will evolve and how others can get involved.
Physical Phenomena Understood by Neither Text-Book nor Dissident Physicists
Dr. Ing. Martin Miller
Initially, the Nobel Prize for physics awarding of 2006 is criticized as erroneous. Then, older errors of physics (also caused by mathematicians) are treated. Of course, Einstein’s (AE) errors (=relativity, Lorentz transform) are considered. Then he (AE) is compared with his only serious competitor Bohr (NB). Result is that NB’s ?achievements? are more sever in terms of physical errors than the inheritance AE has left.
Electron Spin and the Emission of Photons
Mitch Emery
The awkward spin of an electron escapes rational understanding. But by principles from my previous study, the spin is portrayed as a dual spin?with one spin perpendicular to the other. A dual spin as such serves to explain the emission of photons, along with their wave-like pattern, and the speed limit c. Planck’s radiation law and the photoelectric effect are also discussed.
Electron Spin and the Emission of Photons
Overlooked Implications of Galileo’s Relative Motion Observations
Neil E. Munch
This paper describes overlooked results seen when Galileo’s views from a ship or land are coupled with uniqueness of start and stop times of a falling object. There, the same elapsed time of travel of a specific object would be seen by all observers. Observers moving relative to that unique environment DO see measurably-different path lengths and velocities along those various path lengths. Those same results are shown to hold for a light ray in rectilinear motion. This appears to confirm universal time, as defined herein. Contrary to assumptions by both Lorentz and Einstein, it’s NOT the physical length over which light travels that changes with velocity; it is the path length and speed of light travel passing over the fixed physical lengths which contracts or dilates with relative velocity. This also applies on a ?micro’ level for a single light ray where it’s the period between light waves (or frequency) which remains constant and it’s light speed and wave lengths which vary in the view of moving observers. This contradicts centuries of erroneous assumptions that light frequency and wavelength are related by constant light speed c. However, it is difficult to measure light properties for a single tiny light ray from a single light source, so some real-life adjustments are needed as discussed in a second paper.This paper is aka “Important but Overlooked Implications of Galileo’s Relative Motion Observations”.
The Possible Nature of Light Emissions
Neil E. Munch
Newton’s 300 year-old observations with prisms and light spectra show that white light is composed of many different colors. After light passed through Newton’s prism, any single light color (say red) through a second prism produced no further spectral spread. Assuming this author’s prior paper [1] is correct, each color would have a slightly different wave length and light speed, but all would have the same periodicity (frequency). The uniqueness of each tiny energy bundle of each color was possibly established at the instant of its original emission [escape] from its unique tiny location within the light source. If true, white light would not have a single light speed as is currently assumed without proof. Rather, it is a mix of a nearly-infinite number of light speeds whose average speed might conceivably be that which is measured. But, there are significant problems in accurately measuring speed of light –even light with a single wave length. A few of those problems are mentioned in this paper. To avoid those problems, we can turn to Christian Doppler 1842/6 discussions [2] of colored light and his equations still in use today in which wavelengths shift with velocities of the observer and the velocity of each tiny light emitter. If true, definitions of Doppler’s kind of ?ether? might be clarified by the concepts of uniqueness of each tiny light source plus Galileo’s relativity. A conceptual experiment of possible use in investigating this is discussed in [3]. [ 1 ] N.E. Munch, ?Universal Time Confirmation Using the Unique Aspects of Relative Motion in Galileo’s 400 year-old Observations? in NPA’s 14th annual conference at UConn-Storrs, May 21-25, 2007 [ 2 ] Christian Doppler, ?On the Colored Light of Double Stars and Certain Other Stars of the heavens? [translated] , 1842 Publ. Abh. Konigl. bohm. Ger. Wiss. 2, 465-482, 1843. [ 3 ] N.E. Munch, ?Possible Experiments Simulating Optical Doppler Effects at All Speeds?, In Proceedings of NPA’s 14th Annual Conference at UConn-Storrs, May 21-25, 2007.
Possible Experiments Simulating Optical Doppler Effects at All Speeds
Neil E. Munch
There have been a number of papers (c.f. [1]) showing the invalidity of Einstein’s Special Relativity, and hence the invalidity of its assertions that light speed c is constant (regardless of source speed) and that speed of objects is limited to light speed c. In this author’s prior paper [2], it is assumed that average values of the variable light speeds ci, wave lengths li and wave periodicity Ti may still be useful for practical applications of optical instruments. It is also noted that vast number of Doppler applications , which must be using averaged values of light properties if [2] is correct, provide sufficiently accuracy for practical uses. So, it appears that experimental configurations using gated laser pulses (as short as 80 femto-seconds) as described in [3] might be useful in studying simulated speeds of light waves at both sub-luminal and super-luminal speeds. Such experimental apparatus would avoid the prior needs to adjust components within a fraction of a light wave length (such as in Michelson-Morley type of experiments). If successful, such experiments would permit future inexpensive studies of sub-luminal and super-luminal source speeds in many areas of physics, astronomy and cosmology. [ 1 ] Munch, N.E., ?Consequences ot Relativity’s Failure to Control Assumptions?, pp 112-117, and ?Light Wave Discontinuities and their Solutions?, p. 118-124, in Proceedings of the Natural Philosophy Alliance 12th Annual Conference 23-27 May, 2005, Vol. 2, No. 1. [ 2 ] Munch, N.E., ?The Possible Nature of Light Emissions? in NPA’s 14th annual conference at UConn-Storrs, May 21-25, 2007. [ 3 ] Munch, N.E., ?Possible Doppler Experiments at Super-Luminal Source Speeds?, p. 89 – 93 in Proceedings of Natural Philosophy Alliance June 923, 2003, in Journal of New Energy, Vol. 7, No. 3.
Universal Time Confirmation Using the Unique Aspects of Relative Motion in Galileo’s 400 Year-old Observations
Neil E. Munch
This paper describes important but overlooked results that are seen when Galileo?s views from a ship or land are coupled with uniqueness of start and stop times of a falling object. The same resulting elapsed time of travel of that object would be seen by all observers. But, observers moving relative to that unique environment see measurably-different path lengths and velocities along those various path lengths. Next in this paper, those same results are shown to hold for a light beam in rectilinear motion. And an added assurance of uniqueness of elapsed time of travel is found. Since constancy of the unique elapsed times theoretically should be experienced anywhere in our universe, this seems to confirm universal time, defined here as ?that time which passes at the same rate everywhere in the universe?[1]. That kind of universal time in our visible universe is confirmed daily by astronomers and NASA mission controllers in accurately predicting motions and positions of objects in space. For a single light beam originating in a unique environment (as further clarified herein), we would expect constant elapsed times between light travel between waves (constant periodicity and constant frequency) regardless of the relative velocity of observers. The non-primed values are unique for any single specific light source and primed values are those actually measurable by moving observers. Some numerical examples are included for visible light wave lengths. It is conceivable that this relationship holds throughout the entire spectrum of energy emissions, not just for visible light. But of course all of this needs to be confirmed experimentally. If it happens to be verified experimentally, it would certainly have a significant impact on our future understanding of light itself, as discussed briefly in a second paper [2] by this author, as well as impacting many other areas of optical physics and astronomy. [ 1 ] This definition and use of ?Universal Time? is analogous to that proposed by P. Moon, D. E. Spencer and E. E. Moon in ?On the Establishment of Universal Time?, in Philosophy of Science? , Vol. 23, p,. 219 (1956). [ 2 ] Munch, N. E., ?The Possible Nature of Light Emissions? in NPA?s 14th annual conference at UConn-Storrs, May 21-25, 2007
Minor Corrections to Natural Philosophy & Physics of Aristotle, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton and Einstein
Satya Pal Asija
This paper attempts to fix certain errors, myths and misconceptions in classical and contemporary physics, including but not limited to those of Aristotle, Galileo, Newton and Einstein. More specifically it answers some very simple questions like ?Do Heavier Objects Fall Faster?? as hypothesized by Aristotle over two millennia ago, or ?Not?, as experimentally proven by Galileo over five centuries ago. Other simple questions answered include: a) Why is dynamic friction less than static friction? b) Does the Moon cause tides in your swimming pool? c) Is Venus rotating in the wrong, or opposite, direction?Considerable commentary is included about Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of motion, with some minor corrections to Newton’s first law of motion. The paper also identifies conceptual errors made by Einstein in his theory of relativity, relative mass in motion especially at speeds approaching c, twin paradox as a function of time dilation, and presents author’s recommendations for fixing some of the myths and misconceptions, including the fairytale of quantum physics. In this context the concepts of Rest, Dead-end, and equilibrium are differentiated.This paper introduces the concept of UVLM (Universal Virtual Light Medium), with its many types, properties and characteristics, as well as how it is different from the physical light and SVL a special virtual light. Included is the role of UVLM in circular or diagonal (tangential and radial) and rotational motion of the Earth around the Sun. It explains the role of UVLM in quantum physics, chemistry, even cold fusion. The role of UVLM is delineated in physical universe as a subset of the virtual universe. The author attempts to explain, relate and harmonize the role of: a) Electrons in electro-waves, b) Photons in Electro-Magnetic Waves, c) Magons in Magwaves, and d) Gluons in Gluwaves. The paper differentiates UVLM into a) UVLMIN ? Inside every atom, b) UVLMEX ? Outside every atom, c) IUVLMEX ? Inter-atom outside an atom but within a body such as a planet, d) UVLMN ? Higher intensity UVLM in the nucleus of every atom. UVLMEX, UVLMIN & IUVLMEX, respectively, are involved in tangential, radial and rotational motions.The paper attempts to resolve many antinomies of the physical and virtual universe, including but not limited to: a) Three Polarizer Paradox; b) Venus Rotation in the wrong or opposite direction; c) The Twin Paradox; d) Wave Particle Duality and Schroedinger’s cat; e) Why the Moon doesn’t cause tides in your back-yard swimming pool; f) Why heavier objects don’t fall faster; g) Soul ? Spirit and Mind ? Brain paradoxes; h) Entropy paradox of electromagnetic propagation; i) Dimensional Paradox ? Why fewer dimension appear more; j) Gravity as remote action at a distance vs. contact force; k) Big Bang & Expanding Universe and Pioneer 10 escape from the solar system in 1986 & Pioneer 11 exploration of Saturn and hence renamed Pioneer Saturn.
The paper enumerates some of the concepts that are false, and yet we publish them in textbooks and teach them as true. Examples of such scientific and religious dogma include: a) Gravity as fabric of Space Time Continuum; b) Big Bang from Singularity; c) Theory of Macro Evolution; d) Parallel Universes, Multiple Dimensions & String Theory; e) Inter and intra-disciplinary conflicts in religion, sciences and paranormal, etc.; f) Quantum Physics.
SLIDES-Minor Corrections to Natural Philosophy & Physics of Aristotle, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton and Einstein
PAPER-Minor Corrections to Natural Philosophy & Physics of Aristotle, Galileo, Sir Isaac Newton and Einstein
There is But One Reality Dealing with the Whole Being, Implying a Theory of Everything
Satya Pal Asija
This presentation develops the theme of ?There is But One Reality. You may not know it. I may not know it. Nobody may know it except God, but it still does not change the fact that there is But ONE Reality out there and in here.? The paper deals with interface between meta-sciences and religion. It presents four possible interfaces between science and religion as follows: a) Fully Compatible; b) Fully Contradictory; c) Gould’s Separate Magisteria (w/o contradiction or competition) as enunciated; d) Science and Religion as Synonyms.Discussion includes how and why science and religion both went wrong, and what can be done to put both of them on the right track. The author explores the role of blind faith in science and role of reasoning in religion, and how the twain can meet in search of that elusive one reality by taking the LCM (Lowest Common Multiple) and HCF (Highest Common Factor) of what agrees among the sciences, meta-sciences, religions and Para-normal phenomenon and extrapolating the same to its limits. The paper harmonizes truth from sciences, religion and paranormal and Meta sciences, and retains what is in agreement and purges what’s not. In order to arrive at the Universal Theory of Reality, both science and religion must use, not only observation, experiment, and reasoning, but also faith in and wisdom from the supernatural. It is hard enough to solve a puzzle with all the pieces; it’s that much harder to solve the same puzzle with half the pieces missing.The paper delineates the role of UVLM in sciences, Meta sciences, religion and paranormal phenomenon of all types. It explains how UVLM integrates all these concepts into a single Universal Theory of Reality where the invariance of laws is so universal that it obviates the distinction between physics of sub-atomic particles and macrophysics of astrophysicists. In addition to the concept of UVLM, this paper introduces the concept of SVL (Special Virtual Light), which has several sub-types as SVLH for humans, SVLA for animals and SVLV for vegetation, and SVLP for Particles and Planets. However these four sub-types are different from each other both in quality and quantity. Specifically the author delineates and compares and contrasts the three lights: viz Physical light, UVLM and SVL in greater detail.
Two other new concepts of powers and energies introduced are SVP ? Special Virtual Power and SVG ? Special Virtual Guide. Also discussed is the relationship of these three types of lights to the following four types of beings and kingdoms: a) Physical Beings (Half) in the Terrestrial Inferior Kingdom (Humans on Earth); b) Meta Beings (Full) in the Terrestrial Superior Kingdom (Includes Angels); c) Virtual Beings (restricted) in Virtual Kingdom (Limited) (e.g. Spirits); d) Ultra Beings in Celestial Kingdom (Gods).
Finally the author introduces the concept of VPF ? Virtual Physicality Factor, which can vary from 0 (completely virtual) to 1 (completely physical) Inter kingdom travel requires changing the VPF. Time permitting, the author will also present role of aliens and UFOs in these four Kingdoms.
A History of Dark Matter?
Dr. Paul E. Rowe
In developing their wave equations, both Huygens and Maxwell assumed space was filled with touching material particles. Since their equations correctly predict important properties of light, their concepts of a material ether were accepted as fact, until early in the twentieth century.Several experimenters, including Sir J.J. Thompson, reported the appearance of surprisingly large quantities of hydrogen gas during electrical discharge in vacuum. Clarence Skinner reported that during electrical discharge in low- pressure helium, hydrogen was produced at the cathode and the initial rate of hydrogen production obeyed Faraday?s laws of electrolysis. He obtained thousands of times more hydrogen from a silver cathode than it could have originally contained. Recently scientists have produced Bose-Einstein Condensed rubidium, sodium and lithium and found that they transmit light at much lower speeds than vacuum. Could dark matter be Bose-Einstein condensed hydrogen and the medium for light transmission?According to Linus Pauling, atomic hydrogen is paramagnetic. If Bose-Einstein condensed hydrogen is a matrix of protons and unpaired electrons, it would be paramagnetic and have dielectric properties. The presence of such a matrix permits simple explanations of the forces between separated permanent magnets.
A History of Dark Matter?
Some Errors of Classical Physics
Dr. Paul Wesley
Empirical fact continues to be largely ignored in textbooks. Misrepresentations cover several centuries of physics: The readers are made to believe that Roemer’s observations of c were not based on the vector addition law c ? v in absolute space; that Einstein’s postulate of the Planck frequency for a single photon is true; that Faraday’s induction works; that Maxwell’s equations provide all answers in electrodynamics; that ?special relativity’ is valid; that the wave-particle problem is Nature’s fault; that Schr?dinger’s ?wave packets’ collapsing correspond to observation; that the ?big bang’ explains the history of the universe. Paul Wesley has demonstrated the above (and many more) long-standing errors and given solutions in his books. The text handed out at the Storrs conference is his last scientific message, written in hospital about four weeks before his death. Addressing to the misuse of ?belief’ in science, Paul Wesley’s use of the term ?religious’ should not be misunderstood. This was to be our joint contribution to the 2007 conference; we could not complete the text any more. I feel that presenting Paul’s ideas without any alterations under his name is a matter of honor.This paper was conveyed by Peter Marquardt for the deceased J. Paul Wesley.
The Spatial Infinitesimal
Peter F. Erickson
This lecture is taken from the author’s book, Absolute Space, Absolute Time, & Absolute Motion. Common sense teaches that space is different from the objects within it. This is also the conclusion of sustained reason. The key to understanding space is its smallest division, the infinitesimal. The opposing thesis, namely that space is infinitely divisible can be refuted. By understanding the nature of the spacial infinitesimal, we can answer such questions as: What is the nature of an irrational number? Under what conditions is division by zero valid? Is space curved?
The Hidden Opportunities in the Derivative
Peter F. Erickson
This lecture is taken from the author’s book, Absolute Space, Absolute Time, & Absolute Motion. The idea of the limit when applied to the derivative in the infinitesimal calculus is wrong. It does not solve the problem that the derivative is usually different from dy/dx.. Instead, it conceals this problem. As a result of applying the limit idea, certain products of the process of derivation are commonly rejected, leaving only the derivative. Yet, inspection shows that they must still exist. Since the derivative is not an approximation, but an exact product, the commonly rejected extra terms must be recognized as present. As such, they may provide an avenue for the future advance of physical science.
‘It Ain’t Necessarily So’: Nature’s Little Surprises and How to Accept Them (The John Chappell Memorial Lecture)
Dr. Peter Marquardt, Dr. Georg Galeczki, Dr. Paul Wesley
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting high-quality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the micro-physics of quantum mechanics to the macro-physics of cosmology is entertained. Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA. NPA is, in turn, the only component of the non-profit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a long-term science fostering charity organization
Questions on the Microcosm
Prof. Philipp M. Kanarev
Results of researches are submitted as 525 questions to behavior of inhabitants of the microcosm, established experimentally. Brief answers to all of 525 questions are published in the Internet in Russian to the address: Article 104. Detailed answers to all of 525 questions are published in the manual: Ph. M. Kanarev, The Rate of Lectures on Phys-chemistry of a Microcosm, 2nd edition, Krasnodar (2007), 540 pages (in Russian). The additional information, on all resulted questions, is published in Ph. M. Kanarev’s monograph, The Foundations of Phischemistry of Microcosm. 8th edition. Krasnodar (2007), 50 pages (in Russian).This paper aka “Questions About the Micro-World”
Compression versus Attraction
Robert A. Kerr
Earth’s Atmospheric Structure challenges the validity of gravitational attraction as a function of molecular mass. Electromagnetic radiation spatial frequency harmonics do not comply with BIG BANG or currant theories of spatial structure. No logically conceivable explanations have been offered. Since molecular density varies at every altitude, the isobaric altitude structure of Earth’s atmospheric field can only be explained by a radially acting inward compression. This paper presents a logically conceivable explanation consistent with fluid dynamics and available data. The critical keys to the puzzle are: Planck’s Energy (E = hf), DeBroglies Equation (hf = mv2), the agreement of Quantum Mechanics with Ideal Gas Law and addition of particulate density to Einstein’s Energy Equation (E = nmv2) when applied to a gaseous fluid. The unlocking solution is that n = f! Planck’s Constant (h) is revealed as the kinetic energy of a photon. Photon mass is h divided by the local velocity of light squared. h adds mass to the Quantum Equations for Dynamic Attributes. Photon energy is transmitted by impulse (Momentum). Photon pressure is impulse per unit area (Energy). Photon volumetric confinement is pressure per unit volume (Spin magnitude). Quantum Mechanics utilizes waveforms to simulate the actual fluid mechanics. Hence it produces correct answers without conception of the actual dynamics. Spatial fluid pressure is exerted by photons. It is quantitated by absolute temperature. Temperature is the reciprocal of the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion. Spatial mass concentrations are regenerative because they interfere with and radially organize random particle energy. Spatial fluid mass concentrations are the source of Thermodynamic Entropy. Accumulation of mass reduces available surface area within the mass concentration which initiates electromagnetic radiation emission.
A Heuristic Paper on the Nature of Mass
Robert F. Beck
This paper restates the thought experiments that led me to conclude the fundamental initial dependence of mass upon spin (simple rotation of elementary particles) that led to my conclusions regarding the gyroscopic structure of particles that imparts measurable mass (as set out in The Special Theory of Reality as submitted to NPA, Tulsa 2006), and goes on to examine the experimental and observational evidence for this conclusion, including new evidence that has come to my attention since the Tulsa conference. Such evidence is, in part, highly controversial, even to the extent of implying the corruption of the scientific process, and also introduces new concepts to the scope of observational evidence that are defended as appropriate in the ultimate goal of truth, in what may be the most significant realization in the history of science (alien presence, and long-term application of anti-gravity technology on the planet). The fundamental conclusion implies polarity in the inertial effect of spin that was clearly demonstrated by Professor Eric laithwaite, in what may have become one of the most shameful episodes in modern science. I suggest that this explains the motion of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos that thus may form the basis of particle, field and radiation structure, which also may explain the fundamental nature of quantum mechanics, general relativity and string theory. Precisely what Einstein was intending to convey about gravitational fields is analysed, with several quotes, with the clear conclusion that he envisaged more than one type of field. I also cite the experiments of the late Dr. Bruce DePalma and others with gyros and spinning balls (that imply inertial effects of spin) but which need to be repeated in improved form.
A Heuristic Paper on the Nature of Mass
Reconstruction of the Derivation of the Einstein Field Equations of General Relativity
Dr. Robert J. Heaston
One hundred years ago Einstein began his nine-year odyssey (1907-1916) toward deriving his field equations of general relativity. The difficulty of replicating this derivation exists not only because of the extreme complexity of the equations but also because Einstein omitted references, skipped steps, failed to state many of his assumptions, and neglected to define all his terms in his technical publications. On the other hand, Einstein left extensive personal correspondence that contains a number of details that trace his progress. An excellent source of this correspondence is the 1997 biography Albert Einstein by Albrecht F?lsing, Penguin Books. The objective of this paper is to match Einstein?s correspondence record with his publication record in order to reconstruct the approach that Einstein used in deriving his field equations. The reconstruction dictates the path that Einstein had to take if he wanted his field equations to converge on the Newton gravitational force. The major lesson learned from this reconstruction is that Einstein probably overlooked, ignored, or bypassed some valid alternative options that radically change the interpretation of the field equations. The most significant option reveals that singularities are theoretically impossible, an observation that negates inflation theory and modifies the explanations of theories of black holes, the big bang, and strings. The Einstein field equations are still valid but obviously need reinterpretation based upon the alternatives described here.
The Real Einstein
Dr. Roberto A. Monti
There is a definite coherence and continuity of the non – null results of the interferometric experiments, which cause the Theory of Relativity unlikely to be sound. Optical Gyroscopes disprove everyday Special Relativity. The entire Theory of Relativity, both Special and General and its cosmological implications, the Big Bang and the Expanding Universe are highly speculative. Relativity has proved to be the greatest scientific swindle in the history of Modern Science.
The Cryogenic Model of Nuclear Fusion
Dr. Roberto A. Monti
“When temperature decreases, it becomes radiant”. All of this hints at something else: it shows that the ancients were aware of something which puts many present-day scientists, especially astronomers, to shame; the reason behind the ignition of matter, the paradox of heat produced by refrigerating contractions and other similar cosmic enigmas. For this shows us, without any doubt, that the ancients had knowledge of such phenomena. (H.P. Blavatsky, Cosmic evolution, 1888).
A Case Against Tired Light and the Big Bang
Prof. Roger A. Rydin
“Tired light” has been proposed as a mechanism whereby measured redshifts can be explained for a static universe that is not moving at all. Hubble’s law normally states that galactic distance varies linearly with redshift, interpreted as relative velocity in a Doppler sense. A tired photon supposedly loses energy linearly with distance traveled to exactly compensate for Hubble?s law. Experimental evidence is presented that the universe is highly heterogeneous and its density decreases strongly with distance from the Earth. Since highly correlated patterns of periodicity also result in this environment, conditions for a linear loss of photon energy with distance are not met. Furthermore, at least for Compton scattering, energy loss can only occur when the photon changes direction. This makes it impossible for a single photon to travel in a net straight line and still lose energy, regardless of the distribution of scattering masses. Hence, “tired light” is a false premise from two standpoints, existence of a non-uniform density distribution of matter in the universe and lack of a viable physical mechanism to cause energy loss with distance traveled.
The Vacuum and Gravitation
Roger Munday
Modern physics is based upon the theory of discontinuity, the core postulates of which are: the existence of atoms as the ultimate natural division of matter, their characteristic of inherent and eternal (kinetic) motion, and the existence of a predominant volumetric component of macroscopic matter ? an ?empty space? that allows for a completely uninhibited motion of atoms within it. At the beginning of the last century and through to the 1960?s, this ?empty space? was generally accepted as being a perfect vacuum, and this state was believed to occupy all of outer space and to permeate down through the atmosphere and to separate atomic matter in every state, and both relativity and quantum theories were formulated on this basis. Today the vacuum is acknowledged to be ?a philosophical concept with no basis in reality?, and outer space is no longer considered to be a vacuum, while the ?space between molecules is not a perfect vacuum?. Yet the assumption of an ?empty space? remains, but it is now suggested to contain ?a seething mass of virtual particles?, while at the same time retaining its characteristic of non-impedance of a kinetic atomic motion. Thus today this hypothetical and largest component of matter is a zero-inertia medium, which is, in essence, a return to the concept of a ?luminiferous aether? rejected as ?superfluous? a century ago. Since the early 1980?s electron microscopy has effectively proven the existence of atoms; however, this technology has not provided any evidence whatever of any individual motion or of any separation of atoms; rather, it indicates that atoms are stationary and in close contact, having clearly defined borders with those of adjacent atoms. But theoretical physicists reject this empirical evidence – a rejection I that suggest is motivated by the inevitable, and unacceptable, conclusion that it would require a complete rewrite of current atomic theory. This concept of an ?empty space? is the millstone around the neck of the science of physics (and thus of all science) today, and the reasons were clearly and emphatically articulated by Newton 300 years ago, in that it is neither mathematically nor conceptually possible to describe the transmission of any force, either through a vacuum or through a medium that has a characteristic of zero- inertia. Newton also suggested that atoms were static and that the force of pressure was as a result of atoms ?pressing? on one another. The paper ?The Vacuum and Gravitation? shows that applying this concept to the structure and the interactions of matter at atomic level provides, not only for an explanation for the transmission of gravitation, but conforms to Ockham?s principle in supplying simple, comprehensible explanations for numerous other natural phenomena that are either conceptually inexplicable in terms of current theory, or are so extensive, complex and convoluted that they are effectively so.
Work and Making Relativity Work
Sadanand S. Savarkar
An examination of the implications of the Laws of Work and Power, the perplexing energy circulations accompanying the internal forces in moving systems, and the necessities imposed by them to make relativity work in inertial systems. The analysis demonstrates that the special relativity considerations are involved not only in outlandish situations like Michelson-Morley experiment or the particle accelerators only, but are critically and intimately significant even in the everyday activities like riding in a coach.
A Heat-Death for Relativity
Sadanand S. Savarkar
The standard basic laws of mechanics imply the existence of elastic energy circulations associated with the internal forces and stresses in a body at rest in a moving System, even when the motion of the system is uniform and inertial, whereas no such energy circulations occur in an identical body at absolute rest. The elastic transmission of energy is attended with the emission of heat. Thus, in the case of a System in a uniform inertial motion an observer would notice an emission of heat from a stressed body at rest in the System, whereas no such emission of heat would be observed in an identical situation in a System at absolute rest. This must refute the Principle of Relativity.
Ways for Non-Relativistic Consolidation of Science
Dr. Sergey N. Arteha, Dr. Joseph J. Smulsky
The non-relativistic direction in physics existed since the advent of the relativity theory (RT). But, despite great numbers of independent, talented and skilled adherents, results of their activity have not yet led to the rejection of pseudo-scientific theories. There exist external and internal causes for this. Some actions must possibly be taken to safeguard the works of our generation. These actions must promote consolidation of the non-relativistic movement and obtaining of proved results. It is offered to discuss the problem of disunion of non-relativistic works and their development. For consolidating the non-relativistic movement, the discussions on the following directions are suggested. 1. Forming a scientific methodology of investigations 2. Forming the list of problems for joint physical investigations 3. Construction of the common base of performed works 4. Forming of united physical basis All interested colleagues are invited to participate in a detailed discussion of the above proposals.
Light Speed Invariance is a Remarkable Illusion
Prof. Stephan J. G. Gift
The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies; e-mail Though many experiments seem to have verified the light speed invariance postulate of special relativity, this postulate is actually an unconfirmed idea. This paper proposes a resolution of this issue by first showing the manner in which an illusion of light speed invariance occurs in two-way light speed measurement in the framework of a semi-classical absolute space theory. It then demonstrates a measurable variation of the one-way speed of light, which directly invalidates the postulate and confirms the existence of the preferred reference frame of the absolute space theory.
A Brute-Force Challenge to Einstein’s 1905 Derivation Reveals a Mathematical Inconsistency in the SRT Time Transformation Equation
Steven Bryant
Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory (SRT) defines four transformations equations that are generally accepted as resulting from mathematically correct derivations. In this paper, we re-examine Einstein’s 1905 paper and perform a brute-force analysis of the Xi transformation, revealing a specific algebraic problem in its derivation. The difficulty in identifying and communicating this problem will be explained since the problem does not manifest itself in the validity of the Xi equation, but rather in the validity of the Tau equation. Specifically, the problem manifests itself as an incorrect numerator in the SRT Tau equation. Once the root cause is identified and Tau is corrected, the resulting system of equations will require that the theoretical underpinnings of SRT be re-examined.
The Dilemma of Radiant Momentum? a Poynting Paradox and its Resolution
Stewart Ian Wells
An examination of the classical Maxwellian model for electromagnetic wave propagation leads to discovery of a serious deficiency of mechanism for momentum transmission, as well as for assessment of energy delivery to a moving body from the Poynting theorem. The dilemma can neither be resolved through a classical ballistic theory, nor through special relativity theory. A paradox involving the Poynting vector is resolved through the hypothesis of a longitudinal ether compression wave, co-propagated with the transverse electromagnetic field wave. In this model, energy carried by the wave in accordance with the Poynting vector is equally apportioned between transverse static field energy and longitudinal compression kinetic energy. Kinetic and internal energy delivered to a material body are respectively apportioned according to its reflectivity and state of motion.
Mass Disparities from Relativistic Electrodynamics
Stewart Ian Wells
When the theoretical force between two electric charges is employed to compress a standard mechanical spring, the action is examined from two different inertial reference frames. A direct contradiction in relativity theory is revealed where the work done on the spring in the relatively moving frame does not equate with its requisite mass increase. Another contradiction in theory concerns the illusory nature of ?relativistic inertia?, whereby certain deduced relative displacement and momentum magnitudes of interacting bodies are shown to conflict with other specific transformation requirements. Other explanations for the increased resistance of moving charged particles to acceleration are briefly examined.
Developing Low-Cost Vehicle Location And Web Mapping Using Nextel GPS Cell Phones And Google? Maps
Dr. Uma Y. Shama
Research and demonstration projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation explored low cost and higher reliability alternatives to Global Positioning System (GPS) based Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems. As a result, the GeoGraphics Laboratory has developed and tested AVL software for low-cost mobile phones and web mapping which allows for the collection, transmission, storage and mass consumption of location data (web-based mapping). This has lead to research in the following areas: 1) Development of j2me software for military specification Sprint-Nextel? mobile phones to allow the collection of Location data at a refresh rate of 2-5 seconds; 2) Creation of protocols and software on a mobile phone and on a web server for the efficient and timely (within 2 seconds of collection) transmission of location data to a database using, TCP sockets, and lightweight-webservices; 3) Creation of database structures and software development using Google’s AJAX mapping tools to display at a glance bus location, bus routes, bus stops and bus stop information, “map within a map” and super high definition photos of the Bus stop; 4) Development of a user interface to allow bus drivers to easily update which vehicle and route they are running, and when they are active.
The Plight of American Radiation Victims
Dr. Unte Cheh
As pointed out by Dr. Ernest J. Sternglass, Director of Radiology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical School, radiation exposure can cause diarrhea, rectal bleeding, reduced immune system, loss of teeth, nausea, vomiting, cataracts, diabetes and depression. Yet workers in nuclear science have been exposed to dangerous amounts of radiation without adequate records being kept of their accumulated exposure. Damage to the bodies of nuclear scientists has resulted in loss of health and early retirement. Yet the United States has no adequate method of attempting to recompense our nuclear scientists for risking their lives and health while performing their duties.
About Physical Interaction of Mechanical Nature: Science Needs Protection from the Quantum-Relativistic Sect, Usurping Power from the World Scientific Society
Vladislav B. Cherepennikov
This research represents an analytical decision for the classical model of two spherical material objects radiating and absorbing material particle fluxes. The decision allows us to explain scientists-classics prediction, despite Einstein’s negations, about materialistic nature of physical interactions. In the case of large distance between material objects and relatively low movement velocity of the interacting objects with radiated particles, the derived equations for electrical and gravity interactions come to Newton and Coulomb equations. According to the Michelson-Morley experimental results, light phenomena have a corpuscular nature. Dialectical analysis of available astronomical observations, including those of Hubble, Zwicky, Yaakkola, and other scientists, reveals a cyclic evolution sequence of development of material objects in the Universe. Thought experiments, given in the research, show the incapability of Einstein’s statements concerning time dilation and length contraction in moving inertial reference systems. Attempts to conceal the fact of incapacity of quantum-relativistic notions and persecution of scientists by official Science representatives because of dissence is an evidence of usurping power from world scientific society by a ?sect? group that has nothing to do with fundamental Science. According to the aforesaid, let us make a conclusion concerning the necessity of International non-governmental scientific organization, authoritative and self-financing, to unite the efforts of scientists struggling against Science obscurantism, and find the exit from the provoked crisis in Natural History and Philosophy. It is time for us to show our civic courage and call things by their proper names. We should bring to the ?high and mighty’, and to the public masses, the seriousness of the crisis in Natural History and its grave consequences for the fortunes of civilizations on Earth.
The Main Einstein Myth: General Relativity
Dr. Vyacheslav N. Streltsov
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Dark Matter and Flat Rotation
William C. Mitchell
Based on the observation of the flat rotation of some galaxies, and on the acceptance of Inflation Theory that requires the mass of the Universe to be many times greater than that of all of the visible galaxies, many astronomers and cosmologists have accepted that the universe is filled with something called dark matter that is responsible for the flat rotation of those galaxies. However, there is considerable astronomical evidence that denies the presence of that dark matter and supports an alternate cause of flat rotation.
An Anisotropic Frame-Effect Explanation for the Anomalous Pioneer Acceleration with Cosmological and Binary Pulsar Considerations from a Gauge Variant Theory of Gravity
William R. Koepke
The Pioneer anomalous acceleration remains inadequately explained. Here, is an attempt to shed some light on the dilemma by invoking a gauge variant theory of gravity. Since the gauge transformations in this theory are absolute there is an anisotropic cosmological frame effect in the vicinity of the solar system. The acceleration is not a true acceleration but a combination of an artifact of the anisotropic metric and an apparent acceleration due to a gravitational blue-shift. First, an alternative proposal of a theory of gravity is introduced that permits an extra scalar field into the field equations, but is related to the metric tensorially. In the process of justifying this theory, a meta-theory is proposed. Secondly, a cosmological model is solved. This is relevant to the anomalous acceleration due to the fact that the anisotropic solar system is nested in the isotropic and homogeneous background. Although there is a frame effect, it is velocity independent due to the relative nature of the tensorial fields. Thirdly, a quasi-static exterior spherically symmetric solution is derived. Fourthly, since there isn’t any gauge invariance, there is no gravitational radiation. However, there is an apparent decrease in the period of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16. Here I show how the decrease of the period is decrease of the period by an energy dissipation through the scalar field, but is cancelled by an anomalous galactic acceleration. Fifthly, from an analysis of the binary pulsar PSR 1534+12, an anomalous galactic term related to the critical cosmological density is predicted in the galactic acceleration terms of that system. Sixthly, the rate of the change in the eccentricity of these systems is formulated. Finally, from the PPN parameters, if this theory is correct, some verifying predictions are made, like a slight violation of the equivalence principle.