Dates: 20040407 – 20040410
Where: Denver, CO, United States Venue: Metropolitan State College
Description
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) is devoted mainly to broadranging, fully openminded criticism, at the most fundamental levels , of the often irrational and unrealistic doctrines of modern physics and cosmology; and to the ultimate replacement of these doctrines by much sounder ideas developed with full respect for evidence, logic, and objectivity. Such reforms have long been urgently needed; and yet there is no area of scholarship more stubbornly censorial, and more reluctant to reform itself.
Conference Authors & Papers
From the Editor: “Launching this New Serial Publication” 2
Dr. Glenn Borchardt, “Ten Assumptions of Science and the Demise of “Cosmogony” 3
James Carter, “A New Gravitational Constant” 7
Alex Constantin V. Ceapa, “Einstein”s Special Relativity as Practical Theory” 12
Dr. James DeMeo, Ph. D., “A Dynamic and Substantive Cosmological Ether” 15
Eit Gaastra, “An Astronomy Model within an Infinite Universe” 21
Dr. Vladimir B. Ginzburg, “The Relativistic Torus and Helix as the Prime Elements of Nature” 25
Dr. Robert J. Heaston, “The Characterization of Gravitational Collapse as a MassEnergy Phase Change” 33
Dr. Robert J. Heaston, “The Feeling Formula: A Psychological Equation of State” 37
Dr. Jaroslav G. Klyushin, “Proton Structure: an Experimental Approach” 43
“Hydrogen Atom Construction: a “NonBohr” Approach” 45
Jaroslav J. Kopernicky & Prof. William L. Hughes, “A Challenge to Coulomb”s Law: Implications for Gravity and Matter Structure” 49
Dr. Peter Marquardt, “The Potential of Potentials: Old News from a TimeHonored Concept” 57
Dr. Peter Marquardt & Dr. Peter Marquardt, “Numerically Correct Results Cannot Save Untenable Physics Theories” 63
Dr. Mahmoud A. Melehy, The John Edgar Chappell Memorial Lecture: “Thermodynamic Basis of Electricity in Cancer Growth and other Systems Changing Structure” 66
Neil E. Munch, “Early Results of NPA”s Opinion Survey” 71
Neil E. Munch, “Possible Doppler Results from Stellar Emitters Traveling at SuperLuminal Speeds” 77
Dr. Athanassios A. Nassikas, “On a Minimum Contradictions Physics” 81
Dr. Evert Jan Post, “On the Wages of Copenhagen”s NonClassical Sins” 85
Prof. Roger A. Rydin, “Einstein”s Greatest Blunder” 89
Alexander Alan Scarborough, “On the Origin of Hydrocarbon Fuels” 93
Alexander Alan Scarborough, “A New Fourth Law of Planetary Motion and its Ramifications” 97
Dr. Harry A. Schmitz, “Mechanics of Particles in the Fractal Cosmos” 100
Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr. Uma Y. Shama, Dr. Philip J. Mann, “Comparison of the Classical Electromagnetic Theory with the New Gaussian Electromagnetic Theory” 103
Dr. Domina Eberle Spencer, Dr. Uma Y. Shama, Dr. Philip J. Mann, “Comparative Analysis of the Doppler Shift Based on Two Postulates on the Velocity of Light” 107
Billie Westergard, “Structure Formation in the Universe by Spin and Matter Creation” 109
Dr. Cynthia K. Whitney, “This is NOT Einstein”s Postulate” 114
A Challenge to Coulomb’s Law: Implications for Gravity and Matter Structure  
Jaroslav J. Kopernicky, William L. Hughes  


A Dynamic and Substantive Cosmological Ether  
James DeMeo  
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting highquality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the microphysics of quantum mechanics to the macrophysics of cosmology is entertained. Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA. NPA is, in turn, the only component of the nonprofit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a longterm science fostering charity organization  
A New Fourth Law of Planetary Motion and its Ramifications  
Alexander A. Scarborough  
This paper presents the mathematical solution to a new Fourth Law of Panetary Motion that eluded Kepler in 1595.Each of three sets of definitive geometric solutions corroborates the other two sets in substantiation of relative motions and precise interactions of celestial energy masses around a central star, our Sun, during the dynamic layout of our solar system some 5 billion years ago. This solution clearly reveals the full significance of the enigmatic Bode’s Law by explaining the unorthodox spacing of planetary orbits.Meeting precise criteria of relative masses and relative velocities, both as functions of a specific distance apart, the two original energy masses interacted via gravity and momentum to place the resulting fragmentary masses into precise geometricallyspaced orbits in full compliance with the Four Laws of Planetary Motion (FL).
The energy masses, properly spaced and obeying the laws of physics, chemistry and thermodynamics via means of internal nucleosynthesis (IN), initiated their ongoing rates of 5stage planetary evolution (E) as functions of mass/time. Much corroborating evidence reveals how and why every planet is a selfsustaining entity creating its own matter and controlling its own rate of evolution. The resulting FLINE model opens clear pathways to definitive understanding of the past, present and future history of our SS (and extrasolar systems) and of the evoluation of planetary spheres. 

A New Gravitational Constant  
James Carter  
The Principle of Equivalence states that there is no way to measure the difference between the linear acceleration produced by a constant dynamic force and the constant upward acceleration of gravity measured at the earth’s surface. If we thus carry this principle to its most logical conclusion we must assume that gravity and inertia are not just equal but identical. This leads us to a simple and easily understood mechanism for gravity that is completely both local and mechanical. We replace the Principle of Equivalence with the Principle of Gravitational Expansion in which the cause of gravity is simply a constant expansion of the dimensions of matter and photons. This leads to a new gravitational constant Go that is a constant velocity instead of an attraction, an acceleration or a curvature of spacetime. This gives us a new interpretation of General Relativity that resolves the paradoxes surrounding gravitational time dilation, the PoundRebka experiment, the speed of gravity, orbital revolution and the formation of both galaxies and atmospheric clouds.  
A Unified Theory of Physics from a Newly Discovered Radiation Entropy Law  
Ingvar Astrand  
This report demonstrates my discovery from 1992 of an entropy law that solves the modern physics’ problems and replaces its ad hoc hypotheses by facts and insights from experiments. This awaited unified physics theory is derived from observation of Supernova 1987A, when shockwaves of light expanded in increasing wavelengths, like dilating rings on a pond’s surface. I have compared the waves’ symmetry of extending lengths with their covered distances and derived a new entropy law formula. As energy in waves of water and light behaves comparable, the size of the galaxies’ redshifted spectrallines can consequently be computed by Hubble’s as Dopplermeasured velocity/distanceparameter brought into my entropy equation for wavedisplacement/distance that reveals a surprising famous but misinterpreted constant, that is the definition of the ENTROPYCONSTANT that proves that energy is neither quantified or discrete, and reveals the cause and size of THE REDSHIFTS/DISTANCE RATIO: The big bang belief and the quantum question is hereby disproved! Even PoundRebka gravitation interpretation of frequencyshift has the true foundation and entropy explanation by this fractional wave dissipation that also explains the “anomalous acceleration” of the spaceprobes Pioneer 10/11. This simple entropy principle also shows, by integrating StefanBoltzmann law and Wien displacement law, that we don’t need help hypotheses like black holes to explain “quasars” that are just virtual images of very distant galaxies. The quasars’ enormous energies, as it appears by our observations, are explained by the dissipating shortwave emissions that are elongated as redshifted proportional to the distance by the fourth power of the temperatureradiation’s difference that is interpreted as z. Entropy dissipates energy towards equilibrium in the universe’s supra leading low temperatures, and so causes the microwave radiation. My unifying theory implies the right relativistic transformation that accurate and logical allow addition of the observer’s and the light’s velocities without limitation of any asymptotic equation. It also explains the misinterpretation of the galaxies’ rotation velocities that has led to the dark matter hypothesis. (This abstract is corrected and simplified — a little — afterwards).  
An Astronomy Model within an Infinite Universe  
Eit Gaastra, Cynthia Kolb Whitney (Editor)  
In a Universe infinite in space and time, Population II stars may blacken, cool down, assemble hydrogen, and ignite as Population I stars, which finally blacken too, assemble hydrogen, etc. In this way, stars with very big heavyelement cores may come to existence, which may explain the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of white dwarfs as well as the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of bright blue stars. When celestial objects (with heavy elements) become very big, the gravitational contraction may become so high that endothermic reactions start: elements may fuse into elements higher than iron while absorbing low temperature (CBR) radiation, which may explain pulsars. When celestial objects become extremely big, then a reaction may start that turns elements higher than iron into very small elements, mainly HII and electrons, which then may explain radio loud activity by AGNs. Shrunken remnants of old galaxies may become the nuclei of new galaxies as well as the nuclei of AGNs. The cause of solar system formation may by objects (future planets) that travel through interstellar space, attracted to stars.  
Close the Greenhouse; an Unknown Sink Regulates Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  
Ingvar Astrand  
People are indoctrinated by speculating theoretical scientists that a greenhouse effect is caused by increasing level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, from increasing emission of burned gases from human societies, industries, transportation, from warming of people’s houses, offices and shopping centers. Specialized greenhouse meteorologists say that they don’t understand the CO2budget: what is emitted minus what is absorbed by forests and all other known sinks. It seems that all carbon dioxide that human societies produce disappears somewhere. I have solved this important enigma. My study is easy to understand, and it gives us new, surprising, good insights about how the carbon cycle is in balance. Its interesting interaction with the oceans also reveals problematic insights. CCD, the strange calcitecompensation level, is explained: how it is a condition for nutrition on a molecular level for plankton that is food for other lives, in the oceans, and from the oceans. This study of the carbon cycle also explains how carbon dioxide is the foundation for hydrocarbonates. My study demonstrates that Nature does not produce ‘fossil fuels’ from fossils. We also get a surprising but convincing revelation about how Nature produces the oxygen we breath. Research on exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen, to and from trees and forests, has been made over a yearcycle. It was found that there was no net emission or absorption of those gases that are important for the life on Earth. This shocking revelation is important. It gives us beautiful new insights into Nature, with selfevident explanations.  
Comparative Analysis of the Doppler Shift Based on Two Postulates on the Velocity of Light  
Domina Eberle Spencer, Uma Y. Shama, Philip J. Mann  
The paper presents a mathematical derivation of the Doppler shift based on two postulates on the velocity of light:Postulate I* proposed by Einstein in 1907, and Postulate III* proposed by Moon, Spencer and Moon in 1990.  
Comparison of the Classical Electromagnetic Theory with the New Gaussian Electromagnetic Theory  
Domina Eberle Spencer, Uma Y. Shama, Philip J. Mann  
The paper gives a comparative derivation of the fundamental equations of electromagnetic theory in the two formulations that have been investigated most extensively: the Classical Electromagnetic Theory and the New Gaussian Electromagnetic Theory. The principal differences are that the Classical Theory is based on Einstein’s postulate on the velocity of light and on the absolute velocity of moving charges while the New Gaussian Theory is based on the universal time postulate on the velocity of light and on the relative velocity of moving charges. The paper outlines the derivation of the expressions for the force between moving charges and the divergence and curl of the electromagnetic field vectors in both systems. Since we now have five experimental proofs of the validity of the New Gaussian Electrodynamics and the failure of Classical Electrodynamics, it is time to seriously study the beautiful system that explains our actual phsyical experiments.  
Early Results of NPA’s Opinion Survey  
Neil E. Munch  
Some concepts in physics advance in bursts of inspiration; others advance by slow evolution of thought. Concepts of aether, relativity and cosmology seem to advance by some of each. To measure current beliefs, the Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) is conducting a survey of scientist’s opinions in a few areas where recent experiments shed new light on old theories. Three examples are:
Have such observations altered scientist’s opinions about modern physics? The design and early survey responses by NPA members are summarized herein. Over 80% of those answering the questions agreed that:
The next steps will be to extend this survey to the larger scientific community and see if their opinions are similar to those by a majority of NPA members. If they agree that there are valid questions, then perhaps it’s time to seek general consensus for bypassing relativity and seeking new solutions to the unsolved problems in modern physics as now suggested by NASA. 

Einstein’s Greatest Blunder  
Roger A. Rydin  
The 1915 exposition of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity (GR), plus the 1929 empirical statement of Hubble’s Law, were the basis of an assumption that both of these applied to the evolution of the Universe. That idea persists to this day. These equations are so appealing, mathematically, that they are also assumed to apply to black holes and to inflation and string theory, even though these solutions are not amenable to experimental confirmation. Einstein admitted that the addition of what he called the “Cosmological Constant” to his tensor set of 10 coupled 2^{nd} order equations, forcing a ststic balance, was his “Greatest Blunder”. Actually, his greatest blunder was allowing the scientific community to believe that his GR equations applied to the evolution of the Universe at all!  
Einstein’s Special Relativity as Practical Theory  
Alex Ceapa  
Radically new technologies, based on the subquantum structure of matter, should have been achieved by the middle of the 20th century. This did not happen because, instead of disclosing the physics warranting some manipulations of equations leading to the Lorentz transformations (LT) in his original papaer on relativity, Einstein tacitly ignored that derivation. Consequently, the classical principle of physical determination of equations was not implemented in the resulting official special relativity theory (SRT), or, implicitly, in the subsequent theories built on SRT. Essential information on the subquantum structure of matter was missed, and that information provided by colliding relativistic particles was not enough to be understood. Today, Einstein’s original paper on relativity is considered to be of only historical and philosophical significance. But an understanding of the subquantum nature of of matter can be reached when SRT’s flaws are avoided. Tracing radius vectors of moving geometrical points by light signals, I deduced the LT in a manner giving evidence for the physics behinds Einstein’s 1905 manipulation of equations. The resulting meaning of the terms of the LT [that of Cartesian coordinate…], validated the classical principle of physical determination in SRT and the relativistic theories, obtaining that otherwise missed information.  
Hydrogen Atom Construction: A “NonBohr” Approach  
Jaroslav G. Klyushin  
This article further develops vortical models of the electron and the proton and the proton, in which each particle is a massive torus with two degrees of rotation. The article is devoted to investigating standing waves originated in the ether by a proton. Just such waves define discrete spectra of optical electrons and bremsstrahlung. Standing waves in the vicinity of the proton define nuclear forces.  
Mechanics of Particles in the Fractal Cosmos  
Harry A. Schmitz  
A fractal particle is a threedimensional (3D) standing wave (SW) superimposed on much sMüller fractal particles, which comprise the finite substrate of one universe within a hierarchical series of fractal universes, or a fractal cosmos. In this presentation, units of absolute time and length are defined with respect to the frame or a fractal cosmos. In this presentation, units of absolute time and length are defined with respect to the frame of reference of a fractal universe. It is then shown that, for a fractal particle in motion, the frequency of vibration decreases (clock retardation) and the wavelength decreases in the direction of motion (length contraction) as the velocity of the particle increases with respect to the rest frame of (i.e., zerovelocity in) the fractal universe. Predications are in agreement with experimental results, yet the equations of “fractal mechanics” are derived without recorse to the controversial two principles of Einstein’s special relativity theory (SRT). The present derivation is based on Newtonian mechanics as applied to the builtin clocks and rulers of a fractal particle. It is indicated that Einstein’s ad hoc derivation is preposterous and superfluous in the context of the fractal cosmos and leads to unnecessary paradoxes. In conclusion, the fractal cosmos hypothesis is compatible with experimental results relating to clock retardation and length contraction, suggesting that it is a robust theory worth examining in greater detail.  
Numerically Correct Results Cannot Save Untenable Physics Theories  
Peter Marquardt, Georg Galeczki  
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting highquality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the microphysics of quantum mechanics to the macrophysics of cosmology is entertained.Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA.NPA is, in turn, the only component of the nonprofit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a longterm science fostering charity organization  
On a Minimum Contradictions  
Athanassios A. Nassikas  
Any Physics theory is stated via the basic communication system. But is can be proved that this system is contradictory, so, at best, a ‘least contradictory’ Physics can be stated, based on a claim for minimum contradictions. This paper is to show that this Physics can be regarded as consequence of principles of thought; it is compatible, under certain simplifications, with Newtonian mechanics, relativity theory and QM. Finally this Physics describes a Minimum Contradictions Everything. A theoretical basis is provided for the explanation of gravielectric phenomena including the thrust that appears in asymmetric capacitors systems.  
On the Origin of Hydrocarbon Fuels  
Alexander A. Scarborough  
This manuscript argues for a particular understanding of the relationship between the hydrocarbon fuels (gas, petroleum, peat, coal), and the processes by which they were made abiologically, by means of natural physical and chemical laws. Its development includes fourteen indisputable facts, along with much suportive evidence, including a definitive research project (19851986) conducted by Georgia Tech research personnel. The results are products of thirty years of research into the myths and facts concerning the origin and evolution of hydrocarbon fuels.  
On the Wages of Copenhagen’s NonClassical Sins  
Evert Jan Post  
This paper was also published in the Proceedings of the NPA, V1, N1, pp. 8588 (2004). This paper is a carefullydocumented proposition to discontinue currently still standard references to the conceptual images of the Copenhagen interpretation, because they are at variance with the reality presently confronting the world of physics. The AharonovBohm and AmpereGauss integrals of quantum interferometry frame now gain an independent fundamental image in light of their potential to assume period integral status. The ensuing twotier aspect of quantum theory then grants a conceptual perspective that permits dispensing with some of the nonclassical wages of sin of standard onetier presentations. The suggested changes interfere little with standard mathematical procedures of operation, but they do affect decisions as to when to use SchrodingerDirac tools pertaining to randomized ensembles versus period integral tools for single systems or ordered ensembles thereof behaving as single systems.  
Possible Doppler Results from Stellar Emitters Traveling at SuperLuminal Speeds  
Neil E. Munch  
There have been numerous observations of stellar emitters at speeds much greater than c. Those objects include ‘luminosities’ ejected from super novae and stellar radiofrequency sources passing each other. Schemes purported to show that superluminal speeds of such objects comply with relativity are unconvincing, and it seems likely that such superluminal speeds are indeed present in astronomy. Constancy of measured light speed near measuring equipment continues to be verified. But when away from such measuring equipment, the case is made for constancy of light speeds relative to the ‘medium’ described in Christian Doppler’s original (1842) concepts. Using those concepts, the resulting Doppler effects are described for various values and orientations of observer and source speeds. Two intriguing features are a) the reversal of the order of light wave reception, and b) Doppler red shifts, rather than blueshifts, from approaching emitters at superluminal speeds. If correct, there would be a predominance of redshifts at superluminal speeds. That might be another possible reason for the excessive redshifts observed in astronomy. Experiments to study Doppler effects at simulated superluminal emitter speeds seem feasible, relatively inexpensive and are described in a related reference. These experiments might identify a future way to search and confirm or reject the presence of superlunimal speeds in space and the expected reserved wave arrival sequence. Also, they might provide information useful in confirming or rejecting Doppler’s 1842 concepts of a ‘medium’ in which light speeds are constant.  
Proton Structure: An Experimental Approach  
Jaroslav G. Klyushin  
An earlier paper proposed equations of gravidynamic field, and based on that, a vortexshaped model of the electron. By analogy with the electron vortical model, a model of proton is here constructed. Like the eletron, the proton is also considered as a massive vortical torus, but its equatorial angular velocity is 1863 times less and its meridional angular velocity is 3672 times more.  
Structure Formation in the Universe by Spin and Matter Creation  
Billie Westergard  
This paper offers a new theory of structure formation in the Universe at the quantum level, supported by observational astronomy. We do not rely on any form of Big Bang Cosmology to solve the following Big Bang problems: Element Formation, Structure Formation (Dust, Planets, Stars, Galaxies, Quasars), Formation of the Solar System, Age of the Universe, Universe/Globular Cluster Ages, Age of the Oldest Structures, Quasars and the Hubble Deep Field, Superluminal Motion, One Sidedness of Quasar Jets, Redshift Distance Relation, Time Quantization, Redshift Quantization, Excess Redshifts of Companion Galaxies, Microwave Background Radiation Temperature, 0.02 Not consistent with Mass Density, Missing Mass, Requirement for a Cosmological Constant, Black Holes and Singularities, Expansion, Inflation, Speed of Gravity, Open or Closed Universe, Hubble Constant.  
Ten Assumptions of Science and the Demise of Cosmogony  
Glenn Borchardt  
The absurdities in current physics and cosmology are founded on indeterministic presuppositions uncovered in this review. Once subconsciously held presuppositions are stated, they become assumptions, objects amenable to study. Each indeterministic assumption has its deterministic opposite. To obtain a logically coherent set of fundamental assumptions, one must include generalized infinity, which is resisted vehemently by the present culture. Nonetheless, the ten deterministic assumptions are:
This was initially published as an abstract in: Borchardt, Glenn, 2004, The ten assumptions of science and the demise of cosmogony [abs.], in Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division, Metropolitan State College of Denver and the ColoradoWyoming Academy of Sciences, 79th Annual Meeting of AAASSWARM, pp. 2223.] 

The Characterization of Gravitational Collapse as a MassEnergy Phase Change  
Robert J. Heaston  
The assumption is made that the transition of mass into energy, and vice versa, is a form of phase change.Several concurrent characteristics and properties accompany this phase change. Some of these characteristics are a theoretical basis for a strongforce law, an explanation for dark energy, and a specific reference frame that Einstein used. The special theory and the general theory converge at the phase change. The most surprising result of the phasechange model is that energy/light possesses a constant gravitational potential. The derivations of these characteristics are all related mathematically in a common path sequence.  
The Feeling Formula: A Psychological Equation of State  
Robert J. Heaston  
For any given situation, the feeling formula uses only four variables to predict the full spectrum of human feelings from the pain of devasting panic to the pleasure of unbounded ecstasy. The variables can be clinically tested. The formula is a mathematical equation that can be expressed in six different formats that are similar to equations commonly used in physics, chemistry, and rocket science. The feeling formula unifies many seemingly divergent aspects of physiology, psychology, psychoanaylsis, and cognitive therapy, and merges them into an integrated psychoneurophysics theory of human emotions. The feeling formula is a lifelong tool for assessing one’s personal psychological state. It can be used to analyze social, home, and work environments, as well as books and movies. An overview will be presented on the feeling formula and practical examples of its application.  
The Potential of Potentials: Old News from a TimeHonored Concept  
Peter Marquardt  
Science is a collection of successful recipes. – Paul Valery, French Poet and PhilosopherInteractions are ubiquitous in Nature. Physics is the scientific approach to local changes of energy. Energy, a fundamental quantity due to the specific spatial configuration of objects (masses, charges), requires a natural primary system of references and the language of dynamics: Causality, uniqueness, and consistency. These criteria are conveniently respected by modeling interactions in terms of the old and yet neglected concept of potentials. The potential of potentials may be greatly enhanced exploiting the possibilities offered by velocitydependent (=dynamic) potentials. Exploring various fields of physics on this lesstraveled route yields rewarding insights into neomechanics, electrodynamics, thermodyamics, and quantum physics. The Universe may be characterized by a c^{2} background potential that is locally modified by the absolute y factor. Viewing E = mc^{2} as a matter of potentials, mass (like charge) can be treated as constant. Forces on masses and charges arise from gradients of the respective potentials. Temperature is a consequence of local energy exchanges via potentials. Planck’s constant relates two quantities linked by potentials in the micro world of elementary charges. Potentials are a tool so powerful that theories neglecting or misusing them may be ruled out as untenable in physics – despite some pseudosuccesses.  
The Relativistic Torus and Helix as the Prime Elements of Nature  
Vladimir B. Ginzburg  
The relativistic torus and helix are spiral string elements. Each of them contains a singlewave leading double string that is wound by a trailing double string propagating along its spiral path with the speed of light. In the torus, the leading double string follows a circular path, while the trailing double string follows a toroidal path. In the helix, both leading and trailing double strings follow helical paths. The torus and the helix have specific wave and particle properties that make them suitable to form the elementary particles and photons. These properties include a capability to absorb and release energy – a mechanism that sustains the elementary particles and photons.  
Thermodynamic Basis of Electricity in Cancer Growth and other Systems Changing Structure  
Mahmoud A. Melehy  
Generalization by this author of Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion has revealed that the first and second laws of thermodynamics require the electrification of surfaces, membranes, and other interfaces. This interesting result explains numerous phenomena, including capillarity, adhesion, atmospheric electricity, coalescence of drops, to mention a few examples. Accordingly, upon phase change, healing of tissue, and growth of cancer cells, the flow of electric current is a thermodynamically required phenomenon.  
This is NOT Einstein’s Postulate  
Cynthia Kolb Whitney  
The Natural Philosophy Alliance (NPA) sponsors regular international conferences for presenting highquality papers discussing aspects of philosophy in the sciences. Many papers offer challenges to accepted orthodoxy in the sciences, especially in physics. Everything from the microphysics of quantum mechanics to the macrophysics of cosmology is entertained.Though the main interest of the NPA is in challenging orthodoxy in the sciences, it will also feature papers defending such orthodoxy. Our ultimate purpose is to enable participants to articulate their own understanding of the truth. All papers are reviewed by society officers, and sometimes by other members, before presentation in conferences, and they are edited, sometimes very significantly, prior to publication in the Proceedings of the NPA. NPA is, in turn, the only component of the nonprofit corporation: The Natural Philosophy Foundation, Inc., (NPF). The NPF was incorporated in the State of Maryland on July 17, 1995 with the intent to become a longterm science fostering charity organization 